1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Before the declaration of amnesty for Niger Delta youths by President Yaradua in 2008, the Niger Delta region had terrorist groups such as Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Niger Delta Peoples’ Volunteer Force, the Egbesu Boys, and Niger Delta Vigilante with a long history dating to the Adaka Boro Movement in the 1960’s. (Ayangese,2010) and through to Ken Saro Wiwa’s struggles. These militant groups launched agitation against environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, deprivation and marginalization in the Niger Delta areas of Nigeria. In the East, the Bakassi Boys and the Bakassi Movement for the Actualizations of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) and presently the agitation group and movement in the South east Nigeria has taken a new dimension with Independent People of Biafra, are also terrorist groups fighting for equal rights and security of N’digbo true federalism, autonomy and political relevance of the Igbo people in Nigeria having been ravaged by the civil war and abandoned thereafter. The Odua People’s congress (OPC) is the militating wing and mouth-piece of the Egbe-Omo-Oduduwa for the Yorubas in the Western Region of Nigeria. It was used by dominant political parties in the West to advance their courses and achieve sanity. The Arewa People’s congress in the Northern Region was also a formidable group. Several pockets of minor militant groups also arose in places like the Jos Plateau area, Igala, Idoma, Zaki, Ihiam and so on. Therefore, the interest was mainly on land acquisition, boundary adjustment and grazing rights. In 2017, the Federal government declared Independent People of Biafra (IPOB) as terrorist organization, after activities of the group in the South east Nigeria was considered as the treat to the continuous existence of the country.
The Almajiri education system which started in Northern Nigeria around the eleventh century A.D (Ajayi 2001), involve sending male children to faraway places to acquire Islamic education at a tender age of four to nine years. Its success in the past was because the host community took responsibility for the children’s welfare. Today the Almajiri’s are left at the mercy of their teachers or instructors who convert them into street beggars. Yakubu (2012) disclosed that in April, 2012 that there were over 9.5 million Almajiri children that are denied the right to basic primary education in Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem.
During the colonial era, the Southern Nigeria embraced the western education, while the Northern Nigeria embraced the Islamic education. Secondary school is the post primary education in preparation for tertiary education. It attendance by the students is dependent on the readiness of the child, encouragement from parents, provision of school materials, distance to school, facilities that is available, peace and security in the area and above all the security of the child. Terrorist/ Bokoharam has become a threat to most parents and pupils in most Northern States. The activities of terrorism/Boko haram sect have affected the security and peace of the lives and property of people in the North East Nigeria