This research investigated the demographic determinants of exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers in Oye local government area of Ekiti State. Although breastfeeding is universal in the country, the trend is towards giving other feeds in addition to breast milk. Generally, the practices are more diversified and are characterized by late initiation of breastfeeding, the administration of substances other than maternal milk, and the introduction of weaning foods within one month following the infant’s birth. The research design that was used for this study was survey design of the descriptive type of research. The sample size of three hundred (478) respondents was sampled for the study using random sampling technique. The respondents were drawn from the four (4) basic health centre. The instrument for data collection for the study was a self constructed questionnaire. The split half method of reliability was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and Spearman Brown’s formula. A coefficient of 1.00 was obtained. formulated hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics of t-test and anova, the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The researcher concluded that maternal nutrition status influenced exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers, maternal employment status influenced exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers, that maternal age status influenced exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers, maternal level of education influenced exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers, child sex status influenced exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers. that nursing mothers in urban area breastfed more than those in the rural area, family income influenced exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers, Place of delivery influenced exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers. The following recommendation were made based on the findings of the study, The researcher recommended that nursing mother should give adequate attention to their nutrition in the course of pregnancy and after baby delivery so as to enrich and enhance exclusive breastfeeding of their babies, it was also recommended those nursing mothers who are employed either by government or private company should always have their babies in the crèche close to where they are working as this could help the babies to have access to exclusive breastfeeding.
Background of the Study
Cigarette smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried leaves of the tobacco plant. People may smoke casually for pleasure, habitually to satisfy an addiction to the nicotine present in tobacco and to me act of smoking or in response to social pressure. Tobacco smoke contains nicotine and hormone, which when combined give rise to the addictive stimulant and euphoria properties. The effect of nicotine in beginners or irregular users are increase in alertness and memory, and mind euphoria.
Nicotine, however, disturbs metabolism and suppress appetite (Kumari & Peggy, 2006). Adolescence here refers to the stage of maturation between childhood and adulthood. The term denotes the period from the beginning of puberty to maturity. It usually start at about age 10 till 19 years. The transition to adulthood varies among culture but it is generally defined as the time when individuals begin to function independently of their parents (World Health Organization, 2003). Smoking epidemic has been on the decline in most industrialized countries but in the developing countries data suggests that cigarette smoking is increasing by 30% per year (Bartecchi & Mackenzie, 2007).
It is estimated that the total number of deaths attributable to smoking worldwide will increase from 2.5 million in 1995 to 12 million by the years 2030. Most of these deaths will occur in the developing countries part of the reason is that there are poor public health institutions are there is expansion of tobacco companies into the African markets. The health consequences of cigarette smoking are slow, gradual and cumulative. Cigarette smoke is mind enough to be inhaled in overdose quantities. Its addiction has historically been one of the hardest addiction to break. Although the hazards of smoking are well-known, the number of the smokers among adolescent student is still high.
There are many factors influencing these students to smoking for example socio-economic status, having parents, siblings and friends who smoke, also the social environment around the person, the long term consequence of cigarette use may be cancer for young people to ignore because they feel inherently invulnerable to those far-off risk and many young smokers believe they can quit smoking before the long term health “bill” come due for their smoking behaviour. However, evidence suggest that most people who begin smoking regular in adolescence will continue to do so regardless of their intentions to quit. Smoking prevalence rate of smoking in male is much greater when compared to that of females. Male have prevalence rate of 15.4, while that of female was 1.7 overall 8.7, World Health.
A survey conducted by the united state centre of disease control in crossriver state in Nigeria found that as many as 45%of the young people surveyed that boys who smoke have more friends, centers for disease control & prevention.
Nigeria, again, 17% think boys who smoke and 16% think girls who smoke look more attractive little wonder, therefore that as many 22% of the sample population currently use tobacco with as many as 20% of those who had never smoked likely to start smoking in the next years. Young people see their role models like film stars, musicians and celebrities smoking and portraying smoking as something glamorous. Many also see it as a status symbol, a way of telling your peers.
In Nigeria, there is no age restriction on buying cigarettes. People sell anything to anybody without batting and eyelid. It is interesting to note that most adult prefer to send children to buy cigarette and alcohol for them. although it is commonly reported that children smoke their first cigarette while attending their primary school, smoking is most likely to begin during adolescent when various factors such as peer pressure, family influence, social class, and other psycho social determinants, influence individual to start and maintain the habit. Currently among students in developed countries there trend to be more female than male smokers, while the rate of smoking initiation are also higher for females (Daniza 2006). However, in most developing countries there is still a higher prevalence to male smokers.
Cigarette smoking is an important health hazard and a major preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite the fact that the hazard of smoking are well known the number of young people who take up cigarette smoking still seems to be on the increase particularly in developing countries (WHO 2001). Cigarette smoking is the commonest form of tobacco use in the developed countries accounting for at least 80% of over all tobacco consumption, center for diseases control and prevention. While several studies in developed countries had shown a decrease in cigarette smoking among the older age group, it is not the same in the younger populations. In developing countries, the prevalence among the young seems to be on the increase, center for disease control and prevention (CDC, 2013). In ranking addictive drugs, nicotine was determined to be more addictive than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine and marijuana (WHO, 2001). Moreover, early onset of smoking has been shown to lead to more active years of smoking with its health hazard.
In Nigeria, industrialization and increased in exposure to western life have contributed the spread of substance use with alcohol and tobacco acting as “gate way drug” to the use of the other substances like cocaine, heroin, amphetamine, inhalant and hallucinogens. Cigarette smoking is one of the most significant preventable cause of death and unless in the world it account for some 400,000 death per year in the USA, approximately 100,000 in the UK and about five million worldwide (Herman & Sofuogwu, 2010; West, 2010, West & Sniffman, 2007). Smoking is a well known risk factor for the development of the cardiovascular disease chronic obstructer, pulmonary disease, many forms of cancers well as major disabusing condition such as dementia blindness (muscular degeneration deafness, peripheral vascular disease (leading to assumption), stroke, premature death, etc and therefore represent a major public health concern. It has been estimated that smoking may shorten life expectancy by 7 to 10 years.
A quarter of smokers who fail to stop die an average of 20 years earlier man comparable non-smokers (West, 2010: West & Shiffman, 2007). Currently there is a death of empirical data on tobacco attributable morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. However, scarcity epidemiological statistics on smoking are inconsistent conflating, but nevertheless alarming for instance while Samvill (2009) reported prevalence rate (current smokers) of 33.9% in North East Nigeria and Obot (1990) reported a prevalence rate of 22.6% in a sample of 1,275 Nigerian other researcher have found relatively lower prevalence rate of 6.4% among adolescent in Calabar South-South Nigeria. Fawibe and Shittu (2011) reported a prevalence rate of 5.7% in Ilorin , north central Nigeria. In a national survey, smoker prevalence rates ranging 4.7% in Ibadan (South Western Nigeria) among respondent aged between 13-15 years was reported (Ekanem, 2008). There seem to be a point of convergence that age of smokers debut for majority of current smoker was below the age of 18 years. More alarming was the finding that are in four of student whoever smoked cigarette smoke their first cigarette before age 10 years. Femi-Pearse (2010) reported that 40% of the boys and 8.4% of the girls at secondary school. And 72.4% and 22.2% of women at medical school were found to smoke while the habit of smoking of the secondary school boys was influence by their smoking habit of their secondary school and girls and female medical student were mainly influenced by that of their friends. Reducing adolescent smoking rate is essential since smoking often begins in adolescence. About 90% of the adult smokers start smoking before the age of 20 years.
A good number of these adolescence are found in the senior secondary school classes and this prompted this study on the incidence of cigarette smoking among senior secondary school students in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State
Statement of the problem
Adolescent age is the time of life when secondary school students are more interested in taking risks and testing the boundaries of the world outside as well as their own limits. It was observed by the researcher that many of the adult smokers were initiated into cigarette when they are at secondary school age through company of friends they had then and this habit carries on into adult life. Cigarette smoking has health and social consequences like damage to lungs, kidney, heart function, poor academic performance, mental disorder etc. In addition to chronic diseases that may affects smokers after many years of constant smoking, cigarette smoking contributes to traumatic outcome that kill or disable one at a relatively young age. It was observed that the level of indiscipline among secondary school students in Ikere local government is very worrisome and the prevalence of cigarette smoking has become too high and this stimulate the researcher to investigate the incidence of cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.