Background of the Study
The educational system should be seen as a system of active machinery for social chance and it is the teacher that provides the fuel for the engine. It is on the basis of this broad assertion that this study looks critically at “teacher” as the chief executor of business education. Curriculum according to peter and Hirst (2010) curriculum is a programme or course of activities which is explicitly organized as the means whereby students attain the desired objectives whatever these may be’’.
Therefore, irrespective of the number of the words in which the purpose of education is formulated, it invariably implies an attempt to reach specified aims and objectives. Having established the nature of the aims and objectives, it is necessary to put in motion the methods of confirming that they have been achieved. The achievement of these objectives is ascertained by evaluating the curriculum development through its implementation.
In this regard therefore, quality of teacher in this research cannot be over emphasized considering the fact that teachers bound and yet there has always been active shortage of trained and qualified teachers for the educational system in some subjects.
This gives to show that the problem of shortage boarders specifically on improving teacher education.
The universal Basic Education(UBE) programme was introduced in 1999 by the federal government of Nigeria as a reform programme aimed at providing greater access to and ensuring better quality of basic education throughout the country. The UBE is one of the targets of the national Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS). The UBE also transcends the frontiers of the federal Republic of Nigeria because it is one of the millennium Developments Goals (MDGs). Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC, 2011) lists the objectives of UBE to include:
Ensuring an uninterrupted access to a year formal education by providing free and compulsory basic education for every child of school going age under:
- Six years of primary education
- Three years of junior secondary education and
- Providing early childhood care development and education (ECCDE).
Reducing school drop outs and improving relevance, quality and efficiency. Acquisition of literacy, life skills and values for life long education and useful living.
The curriculum according to Onwuka in Onwe and Opa (2012), can be seen as a process that embraces the total experiences by which the school educates the young and inexperienced members of the society. This implies that the needs of the society are met through the curriculum introduced by the school for the interest of the learners in line with the functional needs of the society, taking into account the socio-cultural and technological changes over time. On these premise, Onwe and Opa (2013) assert that for any type of education to thrive, it must evolve a corresponding curriculum. Hence the universal basic education curriculum was premised on bridging the doubts and lacuna inherent in the former education system in Nigeria.
The Federal Ministry of Education (FME) in Igboke (2002) identifies curriculum deficiencies as one of the factors responsible for the failure of then universal primary Education (UPE) programme which was tried two decades ago. The first policy document on Technical and vocational Education, according to FRN in Ukor (2008) emphasizes the need to widen an enrich the curriculum in a way that it will help the youth prepare for the world of work, develop skills and interest, and be able to contribute more to the life of the community, is reviewed to include enough entrepreneurial training in the content. He believes that this will lead to reduction in will unemployment rates, improved standard of living and a decrease in poverty level. In agreement with the above assertion Nwachokor and Akrti (2008) opine that the laudable objectives of the UBE programme will not be achieved except the business of inadequate and un-updated curricula are looked into. NERDC (2007) explains that the national council on Education (NCE) mandated the Nigerian educational research and development council (NERDC) to restructure and realign the existing primary and JSS curricula to meet the targets of the 9-year basic education in the context of NEEDS and the MDGs. NERDC then restricted basic education to have lower Basic Education (Primary 1 – Primary 3), middle Basic Education (Primary 4 – Primary 6), and upper Basic Education (JSS 1 – 3). Based on this structure the NERDC came up with the 9 – year basic education curricula, the lower basic education curriculum, the middle basic education curriculum, and the upper basic education curriculum.
The upper basic education business studies curriculum is therefore a curriculum on business studies meant for JSS 1-3. Commenting on this curriculum, Obioma in depth, appropriateness and interrelatedness of the contents. Similarly, Ezekwe Sili in NERDC (2007) recommends the curriculum for the purpose of producing the best textual materials, the best in teaching performance and the best learning outcome.
The planners of this curriculum did not lose sight of the fact that curriculum implementations is not done in a vacuum. Hence NERDC (2007) premises thee successful implementation of the curriculum, on adequate provision of human and material resources in order to promote acquisition of saleable skills and employment generation possibilities.
Mkandawire (2010) opines that teachers are the most important human resource in curriculum implementation- this implies that a sufficient supply of qualified teachers is needed if the curriculum is to be effectively implemented. Esene and Okoro (2008) insist that for students to acquire the necessary skills and abilities, business studies teachers should be academically and professionally qualified. Supporting this view, Anyaduba in Ogbaekingwe (2010) posits that a business studies teacher without the general knowledge of all the business subjects will be considered incompetent.
In his own observation, Emenanjo motivated and unevenly distributed in Nigerian schools, in agreement, Mkandawire (2010) points out that the education system lacks adequately trained and motivated teachers. Pattison and Berkars (2000) hold that shortages of qualified teachers are most prevalent in rural areas. Similarly, Obi and Chukwuemeka (2006) explains that rural areas are characterized by poor schools with inadequate facilities and unqualified teachers.
Alumide (2002) asserts that teachers have always continued to be fundamental assets in all forms of education process, In the same vein, FRN (2004) states that no education may rise above the quality of its teachers. Furthermore Adesina (2005) affirms that the quality of business studies teachers is a very good determining factor for how far the programme will go. On the strength of the above it is imperative to ensure the adequacy of business studies teachers for the implementation of the upper basic education business studies curriculum.
The curriculum which has been described as deep, appropriate and interrelated could be marred by poor implementation which has remained the perennial gap between educational policies and goal attainment. Planned implementation may be constructed by inadequate teaching staff and other factors. Effective implementation of universal primary Education (UPE) and the 3-3 aspects of the National Policy on Education were hindered mainly by inadequacy of teachers. In order to prevent this ugly part of history from repeating itself, it became imperative to survey the adequacy of business studies teachers for the effective implementation of this curriculum.
Statement of the Problem
Many individuals, parents, organizations, government and other interest groups have consistently over the years expressed their concern over what they called the falling standard of education in the Nigerian school system.
These individuals, organizations and groups fell that Nigerians education standard business and social development is rather falling fast due to many factors. While some argue that this fall is as a result of the indolence and inability of the children of today of study, others view that falling in standard of education emanates from chronic lack of professionally trained teacher.
One of the above divergent views the Nigerian policy makers have gone a long way in designing programmer that are aimed at increasing the annual production of professionally qualified graduate teachers.
Against this background in the third national development plan (1975-1980) the government asserted that quality of teaching staff is probably the most important determinant of educational standards at all levels.
It is a known fact that teaching is a profession that has to do with equipping young people for life and influencing change in attitude of an individual, since the individual is the greatest single factors in the teaching process,.
No technique method, device of gadget can guarantee success unless the teacher can perform his task effectively and efficiently. Therefore, the question of what caliber of teachers might be expected to promote and sustain qualitative business education to attain such as desirable change, peter (1991) note that ‘the quality of a teacher is basic and indispensable feature, which differentiate him from other”. The characteristic related to that attribute that promotes proficiency in learning is that a high quality business teacher is an asset.
It is pertinent to note that one of the crucial aspects of the education process is the teacher; hence great care has to be taken to prepare him adequately for the tasks he/she has to perform.
A good number of students who have completed their secondary education but do not wish to continue with higher education are in dilemma. This is because they are not well equipped with necessary skills to empower themselves. The training acquired at the end of the secondary education seems inadequate to make the school leavers competent and self-reliant, hence cannot contribute to nation building. If the Nigerian society is not to be plagued by a breed of productivity of the country, it is desirable that a lasting solution be provided, thus, this study was designed to fill this gap.