1.1 Background of the study
The business of teaching is not just about what to know but also how to know what we know. What we teach, how we teach, what the students learn and how they learn along with how they are expected to demonstrate their competences and abilities.
Hutchinson (1994), should be integrated mutually in supportive parts of a curriculum. The contemporary ‘how’ make learners secure a platform upon which they dwell on the ‘what’ (i.e. contents) teaching materials (or instructional materials) celebrate the essence of teaching by the teacher and the process of learning by the learners.
Effective learning hinges on first hand (or concrete) experience then proceed toward abstract experiences. When lesson are presented with instructional materials, learner are made to learn through associative mechanism using more than one sense (multisensory modalities) thus they dwell more and stress the impact of what they hear, see, feel, smell or taste. While certain phenomena like in science, chemistry, (pure industrial and applied) require analysis of smell colour or taste, certain individuals or group require exceptional equipment and materials for them to understand what is taught. Using one modality to compensate for another is not limited to special needs of learners because various levels of contents, types of learner and learning situations determine that some media formats are at often times better suited than other formats.
United Nations Education and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1975 articulation with great importance, the signification of instructional technology through instructional media and material resources viz,
- They usually substitute for direct experience.
- They are used to increase power of communication.
- They enhance learning to the extent that they enable the teacher increase association and relationship.
- They stimulate learners’ interest to learn.
- They make it possible for the teacher to stretch his time.
- They reinforce verbal description, and
- They help to consolidate what is learnt
Brawston and Bucker (1995) showed that quality instructional technology integration through media and material provides instructional effectiveness through teachers’ role and teaching method that involve interactive systems, education innovation and learning to improve learning. There are three ways by which the principle of practice makes perfect is entrenched in (presentation) skills workshop; micro teaching and teaching practice.
Each of these genuinely contributes a large deals in instilling and improving proving professional skills and teaching competencies of the teaching personnel, however, the teaching practice not just the most conventional, it demonstrates actual real class teaching while other are somehow contrived.
It is common to hear student on the teaching practice defend themselves before college supervisors that one particular lesson requires or has no instructional materials. Such statement is baseless because lessons taught in the nursery, primary and secondary schools are built around concepts which should be illustrated with simple teaching materials. Though many schools and colleges are found to have many few readily-made instructional materials, the security should not be a deterrent rather it should spur student teachers to prepare and improvise such materials by collecting and filing both local and reusable original resource materials .such collection may include models, charts, specimens, geometric, instruments, tape recorded materials printed materials, newspapers and magazine cutting etc.
An old Chinese adage says “what I hear I forget, what I see I remember but what I take part in doing I understand”. Indeed, only about 12% of what we learn comes from hearing, whereas over 75% comes from what we see.
Learning is facilitated and consolidated effectively when instructional media and materials are selected properly, organized, relevant and adequately structured into the lesson activities. When learners have access to instructional materials, learning sustained has more permanent impression created in the mind of the leaners than when verbal instructions are given out like the lecture method often used by lecturers in the tertiary institutions in Nigeria.( Agogo, 1993), The task of the teacher therefore is realize that verbal language is no longer enough, he / she must master the use of other language (e.g. visual tactile) and other media connection to present concepts to leaners. The effectiveness of instructional materials depends on the degree to which they meet the needs of the teacher and students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example, experience has shown that ineffective ability in communication of ideas are grossly insufficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been mass failure in economics. The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that there are topics in economics that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the learning practical. On the foregoing, scholars like Mutebi and Matora (1994) have emphasized the effect of instructional materials utilization on teaching and learning processes. According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practice. Economics to many S.S.C.E. student appears too difficult to pass at S.S.E.C. Why is to so? What are the measures to be taken to solve the problem? These constitute the study problem for the current study. This study aims therefore at finding out the best way of providing and organizing learning resources for effective teaching of economics in secondary schools to enhance good performance of students in S.S.C.E