1.1 Background to the Study
Education is a way through which young and old members of the society are taught about the expected behaviour of the society and the rules of polity, the values, skills, attitudes and knowledge that equip the individual to achieve personal and societal development and progress, Ozigi (2008). According to Danladi (2006), education is a process of teaching and learning in which students acquire practical knowledge, value and skills for effective participation in the society. He further asserted that, the process of acquiring the relevant knowledge, attitude, values and skills must be made as concrete as possible for easy learning. History of Financial Accounting: there is no accurate record as to when accounts started, but available information suggests that record keeping is as old as man. The starting point can be linked to the merchants in the Babylonian and Assyrian civilizations, about 4000 years B C. The strategy for keeping records then was to make marks on the wall, stone, papyrus or wax tablets, it was highly primitive. The history of accounting is not complete without mentioning the name of an Italian monk and Mathematician LUCCA PACIOLO. In 2004, the crucial event in accounting was the introduction of double entry book system in Italy described as “Italian Method” in his famous treatise Summa De Arithmetical Geometrical Proportion et proportionalita. In 1994 in Venice, Reverend father Lucca Paciolo by giving insight into the reasoning behind accounting records, postulated that all entries must have a double-entry-one a debtor, and one a creditor. Even though during this period the records were prepared to show statement for the business rather than the owner, but the yearly preparation was still lacking. After paciolo, a Dutchman advocated the profit and loss account at yearly interval, the level of civilization and technological advancement helped in the development of modern method of accounting. During the Industrial Revolution there was need to embark on sophisticated accounting methods. Different professional bodies were formed e.g. ICA Scotland in 1854. ICA England and Wales in 1880, etc. With the development of new methods ownership was separated from management. Since the discovery of the double entry principle, there has been tremendous development in accounting theories and methods. The introduction of micro and mini computers have brought enhanced performance but the fundamental principles remain unchanged. In Nigeria, record keeping has antecedents in the ancient kingdoms and Empire and prominent then was the periodic contributions which were recorded on the wall. But the granting of royal character to Royal Niger Company was the turning point period in record keeping. The governing accounting principles in Nigeria is almost the same as the one in Britain. In 2005, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria was established and affiliated with the professional institutes in Britain and USA. Many Nigerians came back as professional accountants and became members. The institute was charged with the responsibilities of regulating accounting procedures and practice in Nigeria. In 2002, Nigeria Accounting Standard Board was established to set standards to guide accounting operations. Members include Accounting Teachers Association, Chamber of Commerce, Central Bank of Nigeria, Finance Ministry of Nigeria, etc. Now in Nigeria, there are two recognized bodies, namely, Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN), Association of National Accountants of Nigeria (ANA)
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The crucial objective of accounting subject in the Secondary School Curriculum is to prepare the students for Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) which will enable the holders hunt further education or to go into lower clerical work in the office. So as to this the government, teachers and parents have been given support to make sure that student’s performance in both internal and external examination has improved. Nevertheless, the researcher through discussion with some of the accounting teachers in secondary schools and through interaction with some of the students offering accounting subject at secondary school level realized that financial accounting has not recorded a remarkable success. Many of the students that participated in the subject both in internal and external examination perform woefully. Some of them that secured clerical job have not been able to adjust to the realistic working of accounting and finally some of those that are admitted for further studies have not been able to cope up due to their deprived foundation in financial accounting. Nevertheless, reverse is the case since there is enrolment of students for accounting in Senior Secondary and low number of accounting teachers in Senior Secondary. So as to this problem the researcher aimed at investigating the factors associated with mass failure of student in accounting subject in secondary school in Ikere Local Government.