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UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
It is a widely acknowledged opinion that the success or otherwise of any enterprise (be it
private or public) among other things depends largely on the availability and utilization of
relevant related resources by individuals or organizations. Resources whether human, material
(tangible or intangible) are recognized vital facets of any successful human endeavour including
education. Resources refer to materials, services, staff, or other assets that are transformed to
produce benefits and in the process may be consumed by firm or organization (Kaufinan &
Schneider, 2004). It is a productive factor required to accomplish an activity. These factors
include land, labour and capital. Other factors are environment, management, time, energy,
among others. Typically, resources could be seen as something that can be used to help achieve
an aim especially a book, equipments, materials, etc that provide information for teachers and
students or personal qualities such as imagination that help one deal with difficult situations
(Hornby, 2010). Resources are characterized by utility, limited availability, and potential for
depletion or consumption (Miller & Spoolman, 2011). This shows that resources are what is
available and can be utilized by people to achieve desired outcomes. Resources in education
encompasses all persons and things capable of conveying information, values, processes,
experiences and techniques that can be used to actively engaged learners in the learning process
(Akpochafo, 2003). The effective teaching and learning of any subject in schools require diverse
human, material and intangible resources.
Human resources refer generally to “people that staff and operate an organization”
(Inyiagu, 2005: 11) as contrasted with the financial and material resources of an organization. It is also the organizational functions that deal with the people basically in form of compensation,
hiring, performance, management, and training (William, 2013). Human resources deal with
knowledge, skills, and motivation of people within an occupational setting. In the context of this
study, human resources refer to teachers who are the agents of curriculum implementation.
Without human effects, no organization (education inclusive) can achieve its goals. Therefore,
this resource is called ‘human resources’, which is the most significant resource of any
organization. As observed by Afolabi (2005), no matter how beautiful the programs and assets of
an institution are, without the teachers, attainment of the institutional goals and objectives would
be difficult. Material resources are any quantifiable material used to complete a task such as
equipments; machines etc that often replace human input or resources in organizations (Miller &
Spoolman, 2011). In the field of education, material resources consist of the major tools the
learner employs in transmitting knowledge.

Statement of the Problem
Resources are very essential factor in the implementation of any school subjects (Social
Studies inclusive). Nevertheless, there have been claims that students learn social studies in
dilapidated classroom with no furniture, electrical gadgets, and facilities. There are also claims
that social studies is taught by unqualified teachers who are not graduates of social studies and
do not have certificate in education. There are also claims that curriculum or syllabus and
instructional textbooks for effective implementation of social studies in junior secondary are not
adequate and sometimes not found in schools. There are also +  claims that instructional
methods 
  used by teachers in teaching and learning of social studies do not meet
stipulated standards either because they are not clearly present or even when present is not
utilized accordingly. It could also be possible that the available resources in schools are not used
judiciously utilized by teacher and students for effective implementation of Social Studies.

Updated: January 22, 2018 — 11:41 am

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