1.1 Background to the study
Educationists are of the opinion that the educational problems relating to quantity and quality could be tackled by the proper utilization of instructional technology which is composed of modern educational technology materials. Educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the teaching learning process. Educational technology makes instruction more effective, understandable and meaningful. All types of resources are used to make the learning easy. Traditional teacher-centered approach in the classroom has been shifted from teaching to learning. It is called student centered or resource-based approach, the student being the resource.
Globalization and technological change processes that have accelerated in tandem over the past fifteen years have created a new global economy “powered by technology, fueled by information and driven by knowledge. The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications for the nature and purpose of educational institutions. As the half-life of information continues to shrink and access to information continues to grow exponentially, schools cannot remain mere venues for the transmission of a prescribed set of information from teacher to student over a fixed period of time.
Rather, schools must promote “learning to learn,” i.e. the acquisition of knowledge and skills that make possible continuous learning over the lifetime. “The illiterate of the 21st century,” according to futurist Alvin Toffler (2011), “will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” Concerns over educational relevance and quality coexist with the imperative of expanding educational opportunities to those made most vulnerable by globalization developing countries in general; low-income groups, girls and women, and low-skilled workers in particular. Global changes also put pressure on all groups to constantly acquire and apply new skills. The International Labour Organization defines the requirements for education and training in the new global economy simply as “Basic Education for All”,” Core Work Skills for All” and “Lifelong Learning for All”.
The importance of inquiry in the science process cannot be overemphasized; the National Research Council (NRC, 2000) solve problems using practical and created the standards around a central theme ‘science standards for all students’. This theme emphasizes the importance of inquiring in the science process, allowing students to describe objects and events, ask questions, construct explanation test those explanations against current scientific knowledge and communicate their ideas to others. In teaching science with an inquiry emphasis, the assumptions of the diverse populace are considered and critical and logical thinking skills are fostered.
According to the National Science Education Standard (NSES, 2000) inquiry-based classrooms should include: A multifaceted activity that involves making observations; posing questions; examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known; planning investigations; reviewing what is already known in light of experimental evidence; using tools to gather, analyze and interpret data; proposing answers, explanations and predictions; and communicating the results.
Inquiry allows students to learn and experience biology firsthand, by taking on the roles of scientists. The students use the inquiry process to develop explanations from their observations (evidence) by has learned. They learn discrete biology concepts and skills and how to solve problems using practical approaches. Incorporating inquiry into biology classrooms empowers students. They play an active role in their learning rather than the passive role commonly seen in traditional classrooms. Teachers can foster better experiences with inquiry in various ways and ultimately positively affect students’ biology process skills and understanding of biology, whether the inquiry activity is structured, guided, or open.
As to the nature of science, many investigations have found no relationship between the teachers_ conceptions and their classroom behavior, and it is considered that teachers_ classroom behavior is influenced by many other factors as well as by their conception of the nature of science (Lederman, 1992). In a case study of three secondary biology teachers, Benson (1989) found contradictions on analyzing the relationship between the teachers_ epistemological beliefs and their classroom practice. The teachers justified the contradictions by the pressure of classroom situations and of the imposed curriculum. Brick house (1990) studied the relationship between the conceptions of science of three teachers (two experts and one novice) and their actions in teaching science in the classroom, noting that the two experts showed greater coherence between conceptions and classroom practice than did the novice
According, Nigeria secondary school science project (NSSSP, 1975), argue that age of development for one to be a function citizen, a full and satisfactory knowledge of scientific skills and attitudes is very necessary. This will assist him/her in inquiry, critical thinking to solve problems on his/her own and become independent in his/her original work.
Likewise a Chinese proverb, Odeshi (1981) is literally interpreted thus:
What I hear I forget
What I see I observe
What I do I know and remember
The above statements go for the improvement of an educational technology to any science subject because it is there that scientific knowledge and learning by doing are acquired.
The NSSSP (1975) said that “biology being an integral part of science is that of exposing the students to direct involvements and experience. It is therefore a necessary aid to good living within the society, to health, agricultural, medicine and living as a whole.
Classroom teaching is a demanding job. Most people outside education probably think teachers spend most of their time teaching, but teachers are responsible for many tasks that have little to do with classroom instruction. Beyond planning and implementing instruction, teachers are also expected to be managers, psychologists, counselors, custodians, and community “ambassadors,” not to mention entertainers. If teaching sounds like an unreasonable, almost impossible, job, perhaps it is.
Educational technologyas compared to technology in education. There is a difference. Technology in education is often perceived in terms of how many computers or videocassette recorders are in a classroom and how they might be used to support traditional classroom activities, but this is a misleading and potentially dangerous interpretation. It not only places an inappropriate focus on hardware, but fails to consider other potentially useful “idea” technologies resulting from the application of one or more knowledge bases, such as learning theory. It involves applying ideas from various sources to create the best learning environments possible for students. Educational technologists also ask questions such as how a classroom might change or adapt when a computer is integrated into the curriculum. This integration means that the curriculum and setting may also need to change to meet the opportunities that the technology may offer.
Biology could be taught in different ways depending on the teacher but which ever method is used, certain general methods and principles of science teaching must come in. This include discovery method of Broner (1965) who said that emphasize on discovery method helps the child to learn the varieties of problem solving and way to transform information to better use and learn how to go about the very task of learning with respect to maximum.
Gagne (1965) said that “learning should be maximum guidance and as acquisition of facts leading to the mastering of principle and problem solving”. It is where emphasis is placed on practical for real experience and training in observations.
1.2 Statement of the problem
One key factor responsible for students poor performance in biology is not that they were not properly taught the concept but it has to do with remembering the biological concepts taught. Could it be that the integration of educational technology into the instruction process of biology well enhances remembering ability? Thus, the problem of inability to remember what has been taught could be overcome.