1.1 Background to the Study
The influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2008) noted that an instructional material in social studies means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn faster and easier. The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.
Social studies was introduced into the Nigerian school system to achieve one of the philosophies of Nigerian education as indicated in the National Policy on Education which is “the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen” (FGN, 2004). The realization of this objective through Social studies is possible since the subject is an integrated programme which are taught and learnt in Social studies looks at all aspects of the life of the child in the society. It is further stated in the National Policy on Education (2004) that education is to achieve the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society. Therefore, Social Studies teaching has been a factor in determining whether a society will have democratic attitudes, values, problem-solving and decision-making skills and whether the society will consist of productive and participatory individuals (Ozturk and Otluoglu, 2002; Keeler, 2008). In Social Studies teaching, which is given such an important mission; it is possible to make the learning process easy, enduring and meaningful through the use of instructional materials. Orakwe (2000) refers to instructional materials as information repositories from the society sourced to transfer the desired information to the learners during classroom instruction. Agwu (2001) views Instructional Materials as those apparatus of teaching which may include textbooks, workbooks, charts, audio visual aids, chemicals, specimens and other relevant things that will attract students’ attention, and which should only be introduced at the appropriate time by the teacher.
Instructional materials are software and hardware that are used to make lessons more meaningful and clearer to learners. They are devises that appeal to multi model senses which help the learners conceive, perceive, internalize, interpret and transfer the experiences gained to similar or different learning situations. These materials and equipment, could be those that appeal to the sense of hearing-known as audio material/ equipment those of seeing called visual materials/equipment and those that combine the two senses called audio-visual materials.
The teacher alone cannot provide all the needed condition for an effective teaching and learning process, other supporting materials should be provided. The students learn better when most of the senses are appealed to the instruction and use of instructional materials in Social Studies education has added a new dimension in the positive promotion of the teaching and learning process. It provides the much need sensory experiences needed by the learners for an effective and meaningful behavioural change. Instructional materials are meant to improve the quality of education for effective learning of students in schools. The performance of the students on the intended learning outcome provide the validation – loop on the success other interaction and instruction (Bakare1986).
In making use of any instructional materials factors that influence it must be considered, such materials must be previewed that is, having full knowledge of the material; prepare the environment where it will be used; prepare audience by means of making sure that the materials to be used will attract attention, arouse, motivate and provide the rationale that could be used in the beginning, middle or end. The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning of Social Studies is not void of quality instructor. In order to give quality education to the younger generation, there is need for employment of more competent, experienced and qualified Social Studies teachers. The need to identify the suitable instructional materials, by which students can be made to comprehend the extent of the subject easily and intelligibly, is the focus of this study. An in depth look at the secondary schools Social Studies programmes revealed that there is the need for improving all phases of the programmes (IMAA, 2004). For example, there is need for the introduction and use of instructional materials and equipments for use in both the classrooms and Social Studies Museum. The broad aim of any good training materials are to induce and support the learning process that leads to improve on-the-job performance through affecting changes in the knowledge, attitudes, skills and practices of the learners. With the above reasons, it is worth investigating the influence of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in our Secondary Schools, for better performance of students in their examination and chosen career in any field of life. If instructional materials are used in Secondary Schools, it would help improving the teaching and learning and hence the learning of students in Social Studies effectively.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poor performance of Students in Social Studies Public Junior Secondary Schools in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja may partly be attributed to poor usage or lack of sufficient instructional materials to teach social studies. Lemchi (2001) noted that some students are losing interest in the subject due to the attitudes of teachers towards teaching Social Studies without the use of instructional materials which tends to affect students’ performance in the subject. Research consistently shows that teacher usage of instructional materials is a powerful determinant of student achievement gains.
Many of the school authorities have very lukewarm attitudes over the provision of needed tools, equipments or materials required for effective Social Studies teaching. This non-challant attitude tends to retard genuine efforts of some teachers of Social Studies in the secondary schools (Bello, 2010). Inspite of the emphasis being placed on social studies as one of the integrated subjects in secondary schools. Hence, the prosecution of a functional education in relation to Social Studies in secondary schools still leaves much to be desired. In view of this difficulties, (Omeiza, 2011) opined that most teachers of Social Studies still resort to the theoretical method of teaching the subject (i.e explaining without an object to make learning real) which makes learning not interesting to learners. This undoubtedly, is contrary to the improvement of Social Studies education, which is greatly needed at this period of our development with emphasis on practical oriented learning (Mammudu, 1996). It is therefore imperative to carry out a study on the factors influencing the use of instructional materials on learning of Social Studies in secondary schools