1.1 Background to the Study
Education which involves teaching and learning process is considered the most effective means of bringing about total change that would ensure accelerated economic growth and national development for any country. The primary purpose of teaching and learning process is to bring a significant change in behavior through active participation and critical thinking of the learner. This cannot take place without the quality implementation of available and proper use of school facilities and other needed facilities. Regarding available school facilities Ogunsaju (1980) emphasized that, quality of education that students receive depends on the availability of an overall school facilities in which teaching and learning takes place. Quality, relevance and access to education can be attained if and only if educational materials are properly available and utilized in an educational institution.
According to Durbin, et al. (1989), facilities are the only means through which organizational activities, service and satisfactory ends are attainable. For the achievement of organizational objectives, facilities play the crucial roles.
School facilities, which are consists of all types of buildings that use for academic and non-academic purpose, equipment, classroom facilities, furniture, instructional materials, audiovisual aids, toilet, ICT, library and laboratory materials and others play a pivotal role to smoothly run teaching and learning process. As Buckley, Schneider and Shang (2004), school facilities enable the teacher to accomplish his/her task as well and help the learner to learn and achieve effectively. Additionally, they emphasized that the availability and proper use of school facilities can affect the interest of the teacher to teach effectively in turn that positively affects student’s academic achievement. Therefore, the school facilities in the school needs a proper attention as they have a great value in the support of teachers and students morale, motivation and plays a significant role to improve the quality of education.
Federal Ministry of Education (2002) stated that to ensure quality education, students should have quality textbooks, instructional materials and other school facilities in sufficient quantity and quality. Hedges and Theoreson (2000) also argue that, the adequacies of school facilities do not a guarantee for student’s academic performance but the proper implementation and utilization of the facilities has a great value. As indicated above, to improve the quality of education, the implementation of available school facilities and the proper management of these facilities should given a great attention. Improving the quality of education, therefore, has become the burning issue of the time as the implementation of school facilities are not properly carried out due to mismanagement of school funds, bribery and corruption etc. Quality education depends on a complex combination of factors that come together at the school and classroom levels. The most important of these factors is widely understood to be quality of school facilities.
However, Social studies as an integrated study of the social sciences and humanities, is to promote civic competence. Within social studies programme, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economic, geography, history, law, philosophy, political sciences, psychology, religion, and sociology, as well as appropriate content for the humanities, mathematics, and natural sciences. The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good or citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world (Wronski 1975).
Obemeata (1984) described social studies as a study of how man influences and is in turn influenced by physical, social, political, religious, economic, psychological, cultural, scientific and technological environments. Social studies should then be seen as a way of life.
These last two definitions have their roots in society and are generally issue based. Social studies according to Adediran (2007) should be seen as a subject concerned primarily with the study of people, their environment, and the society in which they live and resultant interaction of these three elements. As a field of study, social studies attempts at synthesizing and applying the knowledge and skills obtained from history and the social sciences to promote effective citizenship.
According to Iyang – Abia & Esu (2004) asserted that teaching of social studies in respect to its scope and nature, which is multidimensional, integrative and dynamic, cannot effectively take effects without the use of school facilities, the teaching of social studies contents must focus not only on making teachers competent at using such school facilities, but at the same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of school facilities that enhances teaching and learning of social studies goals and objectives (Kochar 1988
Ethnographic and perception studies have also indicated that inadequate implementation of school facilities have a negative impact on teachers motivation that in turn negatively affects students achievement(Earthman, 2002) in the same way Lawrence ( 2003) emphasized that the unavailability of school facilities negatively affects staff and students motivation. A good school environment and adequate school facility have a significant positive effect on teacher’s motivation and student’s achievement. Additionally O’Neill (2000) described that school facility impacts on student achievement, attendance and teacher retention. Reyonds, et al., (1996) found that a negative impact on student achievement where school facilities. As Khan and Iqbal (2012) Adequate implementation and quality school facilities are basic ingredients for quality education and to achieve the intended goal of the school program. They also strengthen the idea by emphasizing that learning is a complex activity that requires students and teachers’ motivation, adequate school facilities such as standardized buildings and classrooms with their facilities, instructional materials and equipment for child’s development.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Inspite of the accompanying gains and the clarion call for the provision and utilization of facilities in our school system, there are still serious inhibiting factors encountered in the implementation of the policy at federal, state and local levels of Government (Nwite, 2007).
Okoro (1991) pointed out that the facilities which include buildings, equipment, tools and school materials available are inadequate for effective teaching and learning of social studies in Nigeria due to misinterpretation of data provided during implementation. One of the major problems of Education in Kogi is lack of quality implementation of available facilities as many projects to enhance teaching and learning process are treated with conflict, compromise and corruption. Bello (2016) revealed that many project on school facilities embark on for education development are being treated on faulty ground as personnel which are to foster the continuity and sustainability of the available school facility are not qualified as to modern application of available facilities.
However, poor implementation and supervision of school facilities tends to increase the level of failure or poor performances among students on Kogi State.
So in the light of the forgoing it is necessary to investigate the implementation of available facilities for the teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools