**CHAPTER ONE**

**INTRODUCTION**

**Background of the Study **

The poor achievement of students in mathematics at various levels of education has been variously expressed. In an attempt to provide solutions to this persistent poor achievement in mathematics among students, areas that need improvement and are of learning difficulties are being identified. In the recent past, authorities like Countryman (2007) and Heidi (2000) identified an area which is of learning difficulty in the mathematics instruction. This area is in the teaching and acquisition of problem solving skills. These authorities contended that problem-solving skills can and should be taught in the mathematics classroom. Several skills in problem – solving have been identified and one of the basic skills is writing (Rob, 2001). It is believed that understanding mathematics is doing mathematics, and one cannot do mathematics without writing. Writing is an ideal situation for being active, creative and responsive to the physical world. In order to teach, teachers must be proficient in exploring, justifying, representing, discussing, using, describing, investigating and predicting, which are important for effective writing.

Countryman (2007) expressed the relationship between mathematics and writing, and also provided a comprehensive description of the approach necessary to teach mathematics in Junior Secondary School and Senior Secondary School. This may lead to the idea that the use of writing exercises in mathematics classes leads to both better understanding of the contents and heightened mathematics communication skills. Mathematics communication skill is the act of using mathematics terms and notation to talk about their insight rather than giving one word answers, that is, explaining writing in communication. Furthermore, writing in mathematics may lead to a less restrictive view of mathematics instead of a series of formulas and rigid answers. The students come to see mathematics as a process and a dialogue to which they too can contribute. The techniques Countryman employs in teaching writing include journals, free writing, learning logs, description of problems. Drake and Amspaugh (1998) observed that teachers who add writing to their mathematics instruction often find it easier to recognize and diagnose the nature of student‟s conceptual problems. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2003) stated that the very act of communicating clarifies thinking and forces students to engage in doing mathematics. Incorporating writing assignments into mathematics courses helps students develop as both writers and mathematicians. David (1999) argued that writing can help teachers interpret unfamiliar texts, construct arguments, struggle to understand complex systems, and develop new approaches to problems. These would also help teachers to develop many writing activities that are involved in problem solving processes. Quinn and Wilson (1997) acknowledged that incorporating writing activities into the mathematics instruction has benefits for teachers as well. They found that teachers gain important information from students‟ writing that can help them improve in their instructional pedagogy.

**Statement of the Problem **

Over the years, mathematics had been dreaded by many students as a result of the impression created in their minds that the subject is difficult. The situation has even been further compounded by the quality of instruction offered by mathematics teachers. The trend of students‟ achievement according to the WAEC report of 2010 revealed abysmal achievement. This has greatly affected enrolment into the science related courses in tertiary institutions in Nigeria, and Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) (2009). Furthermore, Amoo (2000) and Adedeyo (2001) also observed that in Nigeria, evidence from research findings shows that students‟ achievement in mathematics is characterized by low achievement. The West African Examination Council (WAEC 2010) has consistently reported poor achievement in mathematics especially in Algebra. The Chief Examiner in Delta State (2009) reported on this poor achievement in mathematics.

hi!,I like your writing so a lot! percentage we communicate extra about your article on AOL? I need a specialist in this area to solve my problem. Maybe that’s you! Looking forward to look you.

you’re really a good webmaster. The site loading pace is amazing. It sort of feels that you’re doing any unique trick. In addition, The contents are masterwork. you have performed a wonderful job in this matter!

Awesome post. I am a regular visitor of your website and appreciate you taking the time to maintain the excellent site. I will be a regular visitor for a really long time.

Wow! This can be one particular of the most useful blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Fantastic. I am also an expert in this topic therefore I can understand your hard work.

Awesome post. I’m a regular visitor of your web site and appreciate you taking the time to maintain the nice site. I will be a frequent visitor for a long time.

Awesome post. I’m a normal visitor of your website and appreciate you taking the time to maintain the nice site. I’ll be a regular visitor for a long time.

Hi there. I found your blog via Google while looking for a related subject, your website came up. It appears great. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks to come back then.

Good site! I truly love how it is easy on my eyes and the data are well written. I am wondering how I could be notified when a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your feed which must do the trick! Have a nice day!

You made some fine points there. I did a search on the issue and found mainly people will go along with with your blog.

Awesome post. I’m a normal visitor of your blog and appreciate you taking the time to maintain the nice site. I’ll be a frequent visitor for a really long time.

My husband and i have been fortunate when Michael managed to finish up his survey because of the ideas he discovered when using the web pages. It is now and again perplexing to simply be handing out things that many people might have been selling. Therefore we figure out we need the writer to appreciate because of that. The most important explanations you have made, the easy blog menu, the friendships you make it easier to create – it’s got many unbelievable, and it’s letting our son in addition to our family recognize that that theme is enjoyable, which is especially pressing. Thank you for all the pieces!

Hi there. I found your site by the use of Google at the same time as looking for a comparable topic, your site got here up. It looks great. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks to visit then.

I really can’t believe how great this site is. Keep up the good work. I’m going to tell all my friends about this place.

Awesome post. I’m a normal visitor of your web site and appreciate you taking the time to maintain the excellent site. I’ll be a regular visitor for a long time.

I really can’t believe how great this site is. Keep up the good work. I’m going to tell all my friends about this place.

Awesome write-up. I am a regular visitor of your blog and appreciate you taking the time to maintain the excellent site. I’ll be a frequent visitor for a long time.

Hiya, I’m really glad I’ve found this information. Nowadays bloggers publish only about gossip and internet stuff and this is really frustrating. A good blog with exciting content, this is what I need. Thanks for making this web-site, and I will be visiting again. Do you do newsletters by email?

Hello there. I found your site by means of Google while looking for a comparable subject, your web site came up. It looks good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks to visit then.

Hey there. I found your blog by the use of Google whilst looking for a similar topic, your site got here up. It appears good. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks to come back then.

Nice read, I just passed this onto a colleague who was doing a little research on that. And he actually bought me lunch because I found it for him smile Thus let me rephrase that: Thank you for lunch!

Wow! This could be one particular of the most helpful blogs We’ve ever arrive across on this subject. Basically Great. I’m also a specialist in this topic so I can understand your hard work.

whoah this blog is great i really like reading your articles. Keep up the great work! You understand, lots of individuals are looking around for this information, you could help them greatly.

I’m very happy to read this. This is the type of manual that needs to be given and not the accidental misinformation that is at the other blogs. Appreciate your sharing this greatest doc.

Relaxed mattress along with woollen as well as actual materials, as well as produced in the USA. Fits our paired bedroom frame (no box springtime) wonderfully.

Thank you for any other informative web site. The place else may I get that type of information written in such a perfect means? I’ve a challenge that I am simply now running on, and I’ve been at the look out for such information.

I really can’t believe how great this site is. Keep up the good work. I’m going to tell all my friends about this place.