Background of Study
Mathematics has been described by many researchers and authors of different times in different ways. While some tried to show its elegant precision, beauty and brevity, others tried to show its structure and the training it provides. Ibrahim (2004) said that among the training mathematics provides includes the ability to develop powers of logical thinking, accuracy with figures and spatial awareness. The role of mathematics in the field of science and technology is quite enormous and far-reaching and the usefulness of mathematics in various fields of endeavors has been expatiated by some writers including Usman (2002) and Agwagah (2004). As a science subject, mathematics deals with counting, measuring and describing shapes or objects. Mathematics can be regarded as a tool for basic science namely physics, chemistry, biology, and even social sciences, for example geography, economics, banking and finance. The role of mathematics is very important in everyday life that its position is felt in all aspects of life. For instance, for the purpose of economic survival, every citizen needs to be able to compare and estimate commodities and cost of prices. The citizens requires some degree of competence in mathematical computations for the purpose of carrying out routine daily businesses and for thinking effectively. Akinsola and Popoola (2004), supported this fact when they said that mathematics fosters intellectual skills that enable man analyze complex problems, recognize logical relations between interdependent factors as well as formulate general laws on their interrelationship in making precision statements. However it is necessary for a person to have some knowledge of mathematics in order to become a useful and effective member of the society. Which follows that no Nation can develop scientifically and technologically without proper foundation in school mathematics (Ejakpovi and Uveruveh, 2014). Therefore any attempt to treat mathematics with levity in the country’s educational system may have serious consequences for Nigerians. All nations of the world should take mathematics studies seriously because it is the precursor of scientific as well as technological breakthrough and there is no end to the usefulness of mathematics. A strong background in mathematics is therefore critical for many jobs and carrier opportunities in today’s increasingly technological society in Nigeria. Mathematics has been made compulsory at both primary and secondary school levels of education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). The primary objectives of mathematics are as it was spelt out at the Benin conference of 1977 on mathematics and mathematics education in Nigeria as follows.
Statement of the Problem
The use of inappropriate instructional approach has been identified as the major causes of pupil’s poor achievement. The persistence use of traditional teaching approaches in primary schools has stunt the growth of pupils mathematical reasoning and problem solving skills thereby instilling fears in pupils such that, they run out of school or graduate from primary school without understanding the major concept in mathematics. Thus, effort are being made by educators and researchers to see if there will be improvement especially through the use of appropriate teaching approaches and skills that will enable the pupils strive to achieve when solving problems, increase the participation level and develop the willingness to work. This will increase interest and at the end attain a level of excellence and success. Although, many approaches such as guided discovery, target task, expository and traditional methods have been in use, mathematics performances especially at the primary level have not really improved. Some researchers have equally tried to find out the effect of achievement motivational instructional approach of subjects of other fields of endeavour and found the approach useful and successful. This study therefore tries to investigate in the field of mathematics