Background of the Study
About 805 million people throughout the world and particularly in developing countries do not have enough food to meet their basic nutritional needs (FAO,2014).Even though food supplies have increased substantially the following factors prevent basic food needs from being fulfilled:, continuing inadequacy of household and national incomes to purchase food, instability of supply and demand, as well as natural and man-made disasters, prevent the poor from achieving food security and earning a livelihood free of hunger (Fofana, 2006). The greatest world major problem today is how to eliminate hunger and overcome poverty. This challenge is the greatest in the developing countries where people starve for lack of adequate food and nourishment and where starvation and poverty go hand in hand. The common strategy adopted has been increasing output of food tonnage per year through land clearing, improved machinery, better cultivation methods, improved seeds, and improved animal nutrition, breeding and health without considering the quality and quantity of the agricultural products (food) that gets to the ultimate consumer (Omotesho, Adewumi and Fadimula 2011). However, the world still faces a serious food crises at least as perilous and life -threatening for millions of poor people as those of the past. Although there is variation in the estimate of food insecure people all over the world, available statistics show that a large portion of the world population have problem of food insecurity (Wiebe, 2003; FAO, 2005a).
Hunger kills more people each year than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined (FAO, 2014). Food insecurity remains a global threat and human tragedy. It is by any measure a miserable picture, which does not reflect well on the efforts that have gone into the hunger alleviation programs on which enormous sums of public funds have been lavished (Abdulaziz, 2002).
Statement of the Problem
Food is a basic necessity of life. Its importance is seen in the fact that it is a basic means of sustenance and, an adequate food intake, in terms of quality and quantity, is a key for healthy and productive life. The importance of food is also shown in the fact that it accounts for a substantial part of a typical Nigerian household budget (Omonona and Agori, 2007). Food insecurity remains a fundamental challenge in Nigeria. The Food and Agricultural Organization (2002) enlisted the country among countries faced with serious food insecurity problems. The problems of hunger and food insecurity have global dimensions and are likely to persist and even increase dramatically in some regions, unless urgent, determined and concerted action is taken, given the anticipated increase in the world’s population and stress on natural resources.
Agriculture provides food, employment and a means of livelihood for more than 60 percent of the productively engaged population. Regardless of the high level of involvement of Nigeria in agriculture, acute shortage of food as a result of low productivity remains a major problem. Agriculture receives less than 10 percent of the annual budgetary allocations.