**CHAPTER ONE**

**INTRODUCTION**

**Background to the Study**

Mathematics as a subject has a language of its own, with its signs, vocabularies, symbols and notations and plays an important role in the development of human mind and thinking. Hence, the first hurdle a student must face in learning to solve mathematical problems is the ability to understand the language in which the problems are framed (Udousoro, 2006). Language is a system of sounds and written symbols used by people to communicate with one another. For mathematics, according to Akpan (2002), it is seen in its symbolism, terms and notations which are different from that of ordinary English language. A good understanding of English language and the ability to comprehend mathematical language are very crucial skills in solving mathematical problems. Mathematical language plays the role of supplying verbal symbols, which can represent concepts and be used as stimuli for the internalized manipulation of concepts.

Vocabulary knowledge is as essential to learning of mathematics as it is to learning how to read. In language arts, mathematical words conjure up graphic representations of the objects they label. But when it comes to abstract mathematical concepts, words describe activities or relationships that often lack a visual counterpart. Yet studies show that children grasp the idea of quantity, as well as other relational concepts, from a very early age (Dehaene, 2007).

Mathematics is one of the core subjects taught in contemporary human society. It is an indispensable discipline in various field such as science, Engineering, Technology, social sciences, Arts and others disciplines that are related. Many educators have considered it as an indispensable to the educated man or woman. As a result of its importance, it has been considered as a key subject in the school curriculum. Nevertheless, Mathematics is the language of science.

Mathematics by educational policy is made compulsory and it is among the core subjects that have to be passed before any certificate can be issued or awarded to anyone.

The relevance of Mathematics to the society cannot be over- emphasized. As mathematics is a tool in science, industry and commerce. It will enhance understanding of students who have interest in mathematics. It will help the student to correct certain ills of the society; one very important characteristic of child centered approaches is play away method or activities. Method which they emphasized in mathematics like other subject should be made practical where possible in the classroom.

Mathematical vocabulary refers to words that label mathematical concepts for example quotient, volume, vertex, dividend, and hexagon (Sanders, 2007). According to Miller (2003) students are likely to be handicapped in their effort to learn mathematics if they do not understand the vocabulary that is used in mathematics classrooms, textbooks and assessment tests. One of the obstacles that make mathematical vocabulary difficult to learn is lack of opportunity (Paul and Sinha,2010). This is because much of the vocabulary used in mathematics classroom is rarely encountered in everyday life. In addition, mathematics teachers often neglect meaningful vocabulary instruction. Also, many terms have meanings in the realm of mathematics that differ from their meanings in everyday usage (Njoroge, 2003).

Without appropriate vocabulary instruction, students are likely to experience difficulties and interference in the learning of concepts for which they have background knowledge that appears unrelated to mathematics. Students need to know the meaning of mathematics vocabulary words-whether written or spoken-in order to understand and communicate mathematics ideas. According to Sanders (2007), terms, phrases, and symbols are essential in communicating mathematical ideas; and becoming fluent with them is vital for children’s mathematical learning.

Research reveals that the knowledge of mathematics vocabulary directly affects achievement in arithmetic, particularly problem-solving (Staley, 2005). Donoghue (2009) indicated that vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to overall academic achievement in school. Although students may excel in computation, their ability to apply their mathematics skills will be hindered if they do not understand the vocabulary required to master content and able to apply in future situations. Thus teaching vocabulary in the mathematics content area is a critical element of effective instruction.

Although Mathematics is a visual language of symbols and numbers, it is expressed and explained through written and spoken words. Thus, for students to excel in Mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite mathematical terminologies. Teaching mathematical vocabulary words solely as definitions as is the practice in most Nigerian schools does not assist students in comprehending the word when found in Mathematics textbooks and examination items. Students must be actively engaged in building background knowledge using key content-specific vocabulary.

The purpose of this study therefore, is to investigate whether there is any relationship between students’ understanding of mathematical terminologies and their achievement in mathematics in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

**Statement of the Problem **

It has been observed that many secondary school students finds mathematics as a difficult subject to pass due to their inability to comprehend effectively the terminologies of Mathematics used in the curriculum. The final year academic output in mathematics in West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) and other external examinations signify the poor knowledge of students about the vocabularies used in the teaching content. It is against this background that the researcher wishes to critically examine the students’ knowledge on terminologies (Mathematical Language) used in curriculum of junior secondary school.

What i don’t realize is in fact how you are no longer actually much more well-liked than you might be right now. You’re so intelligent. You understand thus considerably in relation to this subject, produced me in my opinion believe it from a lot of numerous angles. Its like women and men are not interested unless it’s something to do with Lady gaga! Your own stuffs nice. All the time care for it up!

Thank you so much for providing individuals with a very nice possiblity to read articles and blog posts from this web site. It is often so brilliant and also stuffed with a great time for me personally and my office friends to visit your site a minimum of three times per week to study the new guidance you will have. And indeed, we’re at all times pleased with the excellent inspiring ideas you serve. Selected 3 facts in this post are basically the most impressive we’ve had.

Good write-up, I¡¦m regular visitor of one¡¦s site, maintain up the nice operate, and It’s going to be a regular visitor for a long time.

Howdy very nice website!! Guy .. Excellent .. Superb .. I will bookmark your blog and take the feeds also¡KI am satisfied to search out numerous helpful info here within the submit, we’d like work out more strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing. . . . . .

Great weblog right here! Additionally your website a lot up fast! What web host are you the use of? Can I get your affiliate hyperlink in your host? I want my web site loaded up as fast as yours lol

Thank you for the good writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you! By the way, how can we communicate?

I have been checking out many of your posts and i can claim pretty nice stuff. I will make sure to bookmark your site.

Wow, amazing blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is great, let alone the content!

Very interesting topic , regards for putting up. “There are several good protections against temptations, but the surest is cowardice.” by Mark Twain.

I precisely desired to say thanks yet again. I do not know what I would’ve sorted out in the absence of the type of secrets contributed by you on this concern. This was a very depressing problem in my circumstances, however , spending time with the very well-written way you processed that took me to jump over happiness. Now i’m happy for this information and as well , trust you are aware of a powerful job you happen to be getting into educating men and women by way of your blog post. I know that you’ve never come across all of us.

At this moment, it seems like WordPress is the preferred blogging system available at the moment. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you’re using in your site? Fantastic post, but I was wondering if you could write a bit more on this subject? {

Some genuinely fantastic articles on this web site, thank you for contribution. “Gratitude is not only the greatest of virtues, but the parent of all others.” by Cicero.

Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your website and in accession capital to assert that I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently fast.

I conceive this site contains some rattling good info for everyone :D. “Heat cannot be separated from fire, or beauty from The Eternal.” by Alighieri Dante.

Helpful information. Fortunate me I found your web site by accident, and I’m surprised why this accident didn’t came about earlier! I bookmarked it.

But a smiling visitor here to share the love (:, btw great design and style .

You really make it appear really easy along with your presentation but I to find this matter to be really something that I think I would by no means understand. It seems too complex and very vast for me. I am having a look ahead in your subsequent post, I will try to get the hold of it!

Excellent post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am impressed! Extremely helpful information specially the last part 🙂 I care for such info a lot. I was looking for this certain info for a very long time. Thank you and best of luck.

What i don’t understood is actually how you are no longer really a lot more well-preferred than you might be now. You’re very intelligent. You already know therefore considerably when it comes to this topic, produced me for my part believe it from so many various angles. Its like women and men aren’t interested unless it is something to do with Girl gaga! Your personal stuffs outstanding. All the time deal with it up!

I gotta bookmark this site it seems handy extremely helpful

You have noted very interesting details ! ps nice internet site . “Become addicted to constant and never-ending self improvement.” by Anthony D’Angelo.

I carry on listening to the reports speak about getting boundless online grant applications so I have been looking around for the finest site to get one. Could you tell me please, where could i find some?

My brother recommended I might like this website. He was totally right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine just how much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!

I simply had to appreciate you all over again. I do not know the things I would’ve used without the thoughts documented by you regarding such a subject matter. It was before the troublesome circumstance for me, however , finding out the professional avenue you managed the issue made me to cry for delight. I am grateful for this guidance as well as wish you find out what a great job your are getting into instructing many people by way of your web site. I’m certain you have never got to know any of us.

I savor, result in I found exactly what I was having a look for. You have ended my 4 day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a great day. Bye

I haven¡¦t checked in here for some time as I thought it was getting boring, but the last several posts are good quality so I guess I¡¦ll add you back to my daily bloglist. You deserve it my friend 🙂

Normally I do not read post on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to try and do it! Your writing style has been surprised me. Thank you, quite nice post.

Whats Taking place i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I’ve found It absolutely helpful and it has aided me out loads. I’m hoping to give a contribution & aid other customers like its aided me. Good job.

We’re a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community. Your website offered us with valuable information to work on. You’ve done an impressive job and our whole community will be grateful to you.

Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so much about this, like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you could do with a few pics to drive the message home a little bit, but instead of that, this is wonderful blog. A great read. I’ll certainly be back.

hey there and thank you for your info – I’ve definitely picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise several technical points using this web site, since I experienced to reload the site lots of times previous to I could get it to load properly. I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and can damage your high-quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords. Well I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for a lot more of your respective intriguing content. Make sure you update this again very soon..

Simply wish to say your article is as surprising. The clearness in your post is simply great and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission allow me to grab your RSS feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please carry on the gratifying work.

Hello.This post was really remarkable, particularly since I was browsing for thoughts on this subject last Sunday.

Thanks , I have just been searching for information about this topic for a long time and yours is the best I have discovered till now. However, what concerning the conclusion? Are you certain about the supply?

Definitely, what a fantastic blog and enlightening posts, I will bookmark your website.Best Regards!

Thanks for some other excellent article. The place else may anybody get that type of info in such an ideal way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am on the look for such information.

You completed a few fine points there. I did a search on the matter and found most folks will go along with with your blog.

Thank you for any other great article. Where else may just anyone get that kind of information in such a perfect way of writing? I have a presentation next week, and I am on the search for such info.

Various other testimonials state the sides are steep descending and that holds true. We have certainly not had any sort of issues with rolling off consequently.