Background to the Study
Reflective is an adjective that can describe a person who thinks things through, or a surface that reflects light or sound, like the reflective lettering on a stop sign. A reflective person is a little different. He or she might have great insight due to taking the time to time carefully about things.
Teaching is the process of attending to peoples need, experience and feelings and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things. Teaching is also to look at what those called ‘teachers” do and then to draw out key qualities or activities that set them apart from others.
Reflective teaching is a process where teacher think or memorise over their teaching practice, analysing how something was taught and how the practice might be improved or changed for better learning outcomes.
Reflective teaching in study come means looking at what you do in the classroom, thinking maybe it works, a process of self-observation and self-evaluation. By collecting information about which goes on in the classroom and by analyzing when and evaluating this information, we identify and explore their own practices and underlying beliefs, this may then head to changes and improvement in teaching.
Reflective teaching is also a means of professional development which begins in the classroom, many teacher already think about their teaching and discuss with their colleagues about out it. They might think or tell someone that ‘their lesson went well’ or “their students didn’t seems to understand or “their students were so badly behaved today”
Reflective teaching in other words implies a more systematic process of collecting recording and analyzing the thoughts and observations as well as those of students and then going on to making changes.
Gatumu (2006) explain the reflective teaching has to do with deliberate examination of how to teach and learn. It fits in the interpretive view of teaching and learning, a move Howard’s critical thinking of the way we teach and learn. It is a kind of teaching of strategy which has to be viewed in terms what you can do for yourself and your students to ascertain productivity in your teaching and students learning. In this extent reflective teaching is a call to let you combine theory and practices to maintain and sustain your teaching profession.
The concept of reflective teaching stems from Dewey (2007), who contrasted “routine action” with reflective action. According to Dewey, routine action is guided by factors such as tradition habits and authority and by instructional definitions and expectation. By implication, it is relatively static and his thus unresponsive to changing priorities and circumstances. Reflective action. On the other hand involves a willingness to engage in constant self-appraisal and development. Among other things, it implies flexibility rigorous analysis and social awareness.
The reflective teaching teachers should thus be aware of the political process and of its legitimate oversight of public educational services. They should also be willing to contribute to it both as a citizen and as a profession teacher.
Early childhood care education is a broad term used to describe any type of educational program that serves children in their pre-school years, before they are of legal age to enter kindergarten. Early childhood education may consist of any number of activities and experiences designed to aid in the cognitive and social development of pre-schoolers before they enter elementary schools
Perhaps we must know what a child is before discussion preschool education i.e. who is a child? A child is anyone who is below the legal age of majority or puberty and who is the natural offspring of another one. i.e. 0 – 8 years.
Brunet (2003) seen children exposed to positive stimulating experience as young children develop enhanced learning capabilities which improve their odds for excelling in school. Children who attend pre-school or other early education programs have;
- Balanced cognitive, verbal and school development
- Significantly higher 1 Q (s) (i.e. integument Quotient) NICHO Early childcare research network (1997)
- Can enter school better prepared to learn
- Are less likely to exhibit later delinquency and anti-social behaviourals
- Tend to demonstrate higher levels of school achievement and better social adjustment.
- Are less likely to have to repeat a grade or be placed in special education classes.
- Are more likely to graduate from high school (Brunet, 1995)
Clearly, there can be long term benefits from quality early childhood education in fact, many researchers asserted that for many children, pre-school programs can mean the differences between falling and passing regular or special education, staying out of trouble or becoming involve in delinquency. Dropping out or graduating from high school Ibid (2005).
Children from impoverished environment tend to reap the most dramatic benefits from early childhood programs early education can increase parents and teachers expectations of children s performance. Children growing up in poverty or near poverty face many health and environmental risks. They in particular need to get off to a good start in quality early education programs.
Pre-school generally place as a place where early education and care are been given to children between the age of three and six years, although some may be licensed to take children from two years of age.
Pre-school is also usually geared to children from about age 3 to 5, those who have move beyond toddlerhood but aren’t yet old enough for kindergarten. A good pre-school program might emphasise the way it promotes your Childs development including laying the ground worth for a solid in kindergarten.
Technical rationality, examines teaching behaviours and skills after an event such as class. The focus of reflection is on effective application of skills and technical knowledge in the classroom (unmanned is Farrell, 2007) and it also focuses on cognitive aspects of teaching is Chulman in Farrell (2003).
Many beginning teachers start to examine their skills from this perspective in controlled situations with immediate feedback from teachers. The beginning teacher is trying to cope with the new situation of the classroom (Fuller in Farrell, 2007)
Statement of the Problem
Educational issues and demand of classroom teaching are so complicated which makes teacher’s work to be so enormous, challenging and never finished. The teachers practicalities, performance standards in personal ideas, classroom management and educational concerns are put together may become overwhelming. These challenges are frequently expressed by experienced teachers, new teachers and student – teachers.
Hence, this research intends to examine how reflective teaching can enhance the classroom achievement of preschool teachers.