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DEMOCRACY AND CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA ISSUE AND CHALLENGES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Democracy is an expression and determination by the people of a polity of how their society should be governed. The translation of these expression into action through appropriate polity and programmers the function and indeed the purpose of government.

Democracy in Nigeria is an attempt to capture and contribute to the ongoing debate discussion and over all search for solution that can heal and build a nation and thereby there consolidate democracy in Nigeria (international idea 200) once  is a loss of faith in the social contract and feedback mechanism between government and the people break down democracy becomes only a process of meaningless ritual the true democracy therefore encourage the development of a feedback process of information dissemination (national interest April 21 2002).

Democracy can however make sense to the ordinarily people if they are active participants in its process if eventually they become better off through implementation of concrete policies and programmers of a genuinely democratic government a clearer vision of democracy has been expressed in such term as the government of the people for the people and by the people this concept otherwise known as participant democracy ordinarily to define democracy as a government  by the civilian without regard to the dictatorial tendencies that may at time make a civilian administration to be undemocratic.

In a democratic system the role of civic society is very crucial as it receives and digest political message from the government with variable outcomes, where the outcome are the expected ones the legitimacy and popular acceptant of this enhances and there by leading to the development of the country but where the outcomes and conflict ally there are usually feedback of the government true the media protect or increase pressure true group activities this feedback are necessary to make government adjust particular policies so as to meet the expectation of the people and this help to develop the society and the country democracy consist of the principles that have universal relevant  and multiples scores furthermore as practice in the accident a then democracy was characterized by three distinguish feature.

First, superior power are vested on the ecclesia the assembly of all male citizen of which each was on title to participate by decision and voting. Secondly, the system permitted freedom of speech.

Thirdly, it made all political office open to all citizen who were put in place of prevent any individual or group acquiring excessive power.

Democracy is therefore seen as an idea institution and process of governed that broad mass people to choose their leaders and that guarantee them a broad range civil right. Democracy  shall now be here in defined in the context of the idea and compared to the problems ad prospect of the same political concept in emerging society democracy is defined as a government that is not only representative of the wishes of the people but it is also for the benefit of the majority

Kaufman (2000:19) stated that corruption is commonly defined as the abuse of the public  offices for private gain but hearken (2004:4-5) corruption is a worldwide problem, corruption will likely appear on everyone’s list of factors obstructing Nigeria path toward sustainable development yet rather that decrease corruption has proliferated the whole refine or removal of individuals official implicated in the incidence that  have come to light corruption is one of the most dangerous social ills of any society lie Nigeria this because is like a deadly virus attack that the vital structure that make for society’s progressive functioning the level of corruption poverty and mismanagement needs to be significantly reduced, because corruption as posed a serious threat to the democracy of Nigeria, corruption is found in democracy and doctorial politico fender capitalist and socialist economy.

Since corruption is not new and since it’s a global phenomenon corruption is pandemonic in Nigeria because the leaders as the followers are corrupt, corruption is an effort to secure wealth or power for private benefit (lip set & Lenz 2000).

In addition, corruption is behavior  which deviates from a formal duties of a public role because of private gain regarding personal, close family private clique, peculiarly or status gain it behaviour which rules against the exercise of certain types of duties for private gain regarding influence (NYE, 1967) to the already crowned landscape Osaba (1996) adds that corruption is an anti socio behavior countering improper benefit in contrary to legal and moral norms  and which undermine the authority to improve the living condition of the people corruption have been around for over decades the recent development in Nigeria where discoveries of stolen public fund run into billions of US dollars and Nigeria naira makes this definition very adequate and appropriate corruption in many terms and it has contributed immensely to the poverty and misery of large segment of the Nigeria population politically corruption take place at the highest level of political authority it occurs when political decision makers who are entitle to formulate  establish and implement  the law in the name of the people and themselves and corrupt it also take place when policy formation and legislation is tailored to benefit and legislators.

Statement of the Problem

Corruption and its existence in Nigeria has clearly become a canker worm to the nation and is growing in an alarming rate. Corrupt practices has become common place on our streets, posts. post of entires educationally and health establishment government ministries and parastatals banks and religious houses, no sector is speared. Hence Nigeria as a democratic society corrupt has threatened the nation, loyalties were fragmented by thought of personal  gains while centrifugal tendencies were promoted through the instrumentality of corruption the high incidence of corruption and the socio-economy dysfunction and amoralities a gendered there from  provided architect of military coup that at various times punctuated our democratic destiny the excuse for their action each successive pitch rode in the back of anticorruption rhetoric, democracy is characterized with some basic fundamental human right corruption in a democratic society like Nigeria has slow down the growth rate of countries investment country in the international system this is noticeable in the rating of the corrupt nations by the transparency international (TI) and the deficiency in the extant studies is that they tend to assume that every society given the choice would opt for republican democracy as against monarchy, diarchy and theocracy for instance if democracy is a rule of majority an uninformed majority can be in fenced or manipulated by the ruling class as in so often the case in these emergent society especially Nigeria the political entity called Nigeria is a beset with the problem of corrupt practices at least nearly all spheres of life and every sector of the political system have been witnessing a high level of corruption the major concern  here is a reveal the various problem that this precarious menace has caused to the socio-political system of Nigeria corruption has been describe in many ways since just like every other concept in social science it has no definite definition the issue of corruption in Nigeria has gone beyond reasonable doubt though the level of corruption varies from one society to the other, the rate at which in term of havoc, it has caused to the socio-political and economic development of the system (Owolabi, 2005) A look at the Nigeria situation reveals that corrupt practices has  pervaded nearly all areas and sector of political system such areas may include the public service under which we have police and colleges in which Nigeria was rated the second most serious nation in the world the (Dike, 2002) also public corruption has the most serious consequences because it alters the like between government and governed elected and electors it unravels the social contract and de symbolizes politics (Rose commission 1994) on a final note corruption has done more harm than good to the Nigeria political system the democratic masses have somehow remained silent over the years especially under the incessant military rules even now that democracy people centric governance is in place the story seems to be the same democratic is devoid of leadership accountability (Akinwande 2003:A8) lamented that the war against corruption should start at the presidency because the greatest fraud going or in Nigeria happens at the presidency from the assessment the issue of corruption under democracy is still major disturbance to the development of relationship with national community a lot of countries has decided to deal with Nigeria due to high level of corruption by breading and feeding on inefficiency corruption in variably strangles the system of social organization in fact corruption is literarily the antithesis  of development (Obasanjo 2003:3) Nigeria as remain in the darkness of corruption.

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Updated: September 28, 2017 — 10:40 pm

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