Background Information of the Study
Assessment as an indispensable ingredient, condiment and tool for determining efficiency at work or play, mastery of delivered instructions, decision making about policy, curriculum and programme; placing, classifying, managing selecting promoting and certifying students’ needs to evolve from the most suitable, equitable and reliable method of assessment.
Assessment is carried out almost in all facets of life. It is utilized to determine the value of an object and the effectiveness of a programme or the performance of a certain learner. In education, assessment according to Ezewu and Okoye (2001) involves all activities carried out to determine the extent of the performance of a student in a school up to a particular point in a time.
Olaitan (2006) expressed that the observed and result of any teaching learning activity is based on the students ability to perform satisfactorily and independently on such activities, skill and attitude as concerned to Good (2003) is the actual accomplishment of learning as distinguished from potential ability.
Educational assessment seeks to determine how well students are learning and is an integral part of the quest for improved education. It provides feedback to students, educators, parents, policymakers, and the public about the effectiveness of educational services.
Nanassely (2007) argues that Business Studies is that aspect of total education programme that provides knowledge, skills, attitude and understanding needed to perform in the business world as producer or consumer of goods and services that business offers. Okeke (2008) opines that it is noteworthy that business studies involves teaching students the fundamental theories and process of business in various level of education which include secondary school and higher education, an average number students enroll in one or more business courses during their secondary school programmes.
Ugwochukwu (2009) stated that business studies is a concept that can be defined in so many ways by several people to suit different situation and purposes, some defined it from the way it is taught in schools. “Business studies refer to those business subjects taught at the secondary school level such as Book Keeping and Shorthand.
According to Okeke (2008), Gender is a cultural construct that distinguishes the roles, behavior, mental and emotional characteristics between female and males developed by a society;- Umoh ( 2003) defines gender as a psychological term used is describing behavious and attributes expected of individuals on the basis of being born as either male or female. Thus, gender equally projects the properties that distinguish and classify organism on the basis of their reproductive and cultural expectant roles. It relates to the cultural psychological attributes of men and women through their socio- economic contributions expectations and limitations. It has been observed that both male and female students has equal chances of academic success but the male always claim superiority over their female counterparts which cannot be judged academically as there are numerous cases where the female performs excellently in their academic work than their male counterpart.
Thus the concept of gender does not support or suggest the domination of male over female or vice versa in academics and other human resources development areas but stresses equality equity in enhancing effective and efficient recognition, development and utilization of competencies and endowed capability of both sexes.
Statement of the Problem
Generally, Vocational subjects were introduced into the junior secondary school curriculum by the federal government with the aim of preparing the students for a chosen vocation (NPE 2004). In order to achieve this objective, the federal government embarked on the training of vocational teachers through a programme known as Technical Teacher Training programme (TTTP).
The programme was then meant to upgrade and improve the skills of vocational and science teachers. Business studies were included in the curriculum as a subject with the aim of preparing its recipients for work in all phases of business. Though, the 2010 National Policy on Education gives each school the chance of choosing its own option among the vocational subjects, but the researcher noticed that nearly all schools within Ikere – Local Government Area of Ekiti State do offer the subjects. Also, it is observed the subject is offered by both male and female students in the schools while it appears that more attention is placed on it over and above other pre-vocational subjects like introductory Technology, Fine Art, Agricultural Science and Home – Economics. In addition, there has since been tremendous increase in the number of business studies teachers posted to teach in secondary school. In the light of all these and since the success of any teaching and learning process is evident in the general performance of studies in a subject. The researcher therefore wishes to shed more light to the various methods of assessing the academic performance of junior secondary school students in Business Studies in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.