Background of the Study
The rate of pregnancy among adolescents is on daily increase and this is causing major health and social problems in the society. Pregnancy among adolescent is one of the major prevalent health concern for families as a unit, the society and the government both at local, state and federal level. According to Castraw (2010) more than one million adolescents ranging between ages of 15 to 17 years became pregnant. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey in 1992 revealed that more than a quarter of Nigerian adolescents ages between 15 and 19 years are pregnant or have had children, and that 43% of the pregnancy are unintended or unplanned for. The same agency revealed that adolescent are more likely to resort to induced and unsafe abortion which can result into morbidity and mortality. Jeremy (2007) stated that adolescents are sexually active beyond what parents, teachers and religious leaders think the prevailing situation is, this is due to the fact that they are at a stage of life characterized by intense sexual drive, peer pressure, a perverse social environment poor reproductive health knowledge, just to mention a few and one of the consequences of the aforementioned is teenage pregnancy.
Mark (2006) stated that more and more adolescent are becoming sexually active, at early ages, at a high frequency, with many partners and without the benefit of effective and regular contraception. He went further to say that the result of these encounters is unwanted and unplanned pregnancy. Young girls involved in this practice while still in school thereby depending on their parents and guardians for survival. At times they are not even sure of the father of the expected child as most of such pregnancies are unwanted, unplanned and unintended the girls are force to terminate pregnancies by all means because they are not ready for motherhood as that would mean loosing out of many life opportunities such as education, jobs, marriage. They fear retribution and rebuke by the family and society as a whole, though a few of such girls do carry the pregnancy up to the stage of delivery. It is presumed that a good proportion of them do terminate their pregnancy to remedy the already awful situation.
Statement of the Problem
The rate of unplanned pregnancies among adolescent girls around the world today is quite alarming. Over a third are unintended and about a fifth end in induced abortion. Most abortions result from unintended pregnancies, and it has been revealed that adolescents have the highest risks of suffering serious complications from unsafe abortions. Among women admitted to hospitals for treatment of unsafe abortion complications, those aged under 20 years account for 38 – 68% of cases in many developing countries. These complications include cervical or vaginal lacerations, sepsis, hemorrhage, bowel or uterine perforation, tetanus, pelvic infections or abscesses, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and secondary infertility. Unplanned pregnancies are the result of various factors, including lack of knowledge about menstruation and pregnancy, lack of access to, and knowledge about how to use contraceptives; difficulties in using contraceptives because of a partner’s or family objections; contraceptive failure; and sexual assault. Also, adolescents may more often delay seeking care for abortion- related complications due to lack of transportation, lack of knowledge about where post- abortion care can be obtained, fears of censure from their parents and health- care providers, fear of legal repercussions, or lack of money to pay for services. This may be particularly so in rural communities where access to basic infrastructural facilities remain low and inadequate.
Therefore, this study is set out to measure the influence of abortion on academic performances of senior secondary school students in Irepodun- Ifelodun Local Government Area of Ekiti State.