1.1 Background of the Study
Education is an age long phenomenon is all societies, although itmay take various forms from one society to another. In Nigeria, two forms of education were in existence before the advent of colonialism. They were indigenous education and Islamic education. Traditional education was practiced in the Southern part, and middle belt area, consisted essentially of general but informal training in character, norms, agriculture, fishing, intellectuals and other ways of life as approved by the society. Islamic education on the other hand was practiced mainly in the Northern part of Nigeria. It was based on Quran teachings. Both form of education preceded the western education which was introduced in Nigeria in the 19th century by the European Christian Missionaries. The advert of colonial brought about informal education in Nigeria. This subsequently led by Policy Formation in Education Sector.
Educational system is defined by dictionary of education, (2008) as the system of formalized transmission of knowledge and value, within a given society. Educational system is the way the people in a given society carry out all activities relating to education (Abati, 2010). To this end, educational system is a system which embraces teachers, students, contents and contexts to achieve set goals. Nigeria has established several educational systems and each of them had laid huge financial, material and labour costs on the country. It is pathetic that each of these very expensive programmes had supposedly failed leading to establishment of a new one. Even the most recent one being the 9-3-4 system has been viewed to have failed as observed by Abati (2010). Nigeria cannot continue to gamble with the future of her younger generations over various ineffective and inefficient educational systems.
Adaralegbe in Adeyinka (1991) stated that the 6-3-3-4 system of education is an educational system which administers a six year primary school course followed by six years of secondary schooling, divided into three year of junior secondary and a three year senior secondary education and lastly a four -year university programme. Anieto (2011) commenting on the ineffectiveness of the 6-3-3-4 system of education stated that; there is a general worry about the poor quality of education output in Nigeria. Researchers have pointed to the declining performance of graduates from the education system relative to what obtained in the past education system.–(Ugochukwu, 2009, Duze, 2011, Aladejana, 2013).
Statement of the Problem
Education in Nigeria is currently in crisis. There is less money to spend on Primary, Secondary and Tertiary education. Education sector complains of under-funding while the government accuses the sector of inefficient utilization of available resources. The donors argue that public spending on education should be reduced. At the same time there are growing changes at the education level. Moreover, there are increasing complaints about poor standard of education at a period when globalization demands much from the educational system in terms of preparation of skillful labour force.
Another problem battling with this educational sector in Nigeria is the incompetence of employed teachers. This is found rampant in private schools, for the simple fact that such schools are owned by private individuals that can employ staff on their own without verifying their educational background, standard and qualification. Owners of such schools tend to be profit oriented (capitalist). With this, their target on payment of salary will be lesser unlike public school which is anchored by the government. The gaps that this study waits to fill is that several study(ies) has been conducted by the researchers on the study, using content analysis as the method of analyzing the identifying variables, but this study employ the descriptive analysis to investigate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
There is a rampant notion which is generally felt in the Nigeria’s education sector. The academic performance of students at the various levels of educational system, the incessant strikes embarked by the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) and Non-Academics Staff Union (NASU), teachers in the secondary and primary schools etc. have really affected the education sector and performance of the students. Owing to this, the academic calendar have been disrupted, pupils and students have stayed more than required in their studies. To the employed staff in the academic institutions, their agitations boil down to the inability by government to meet up the new salary scheme. More so, it is attributed to the poor state of the learning institutions, which the attention of the government is drawn on. These have prompted the researcher to embark on the study to investigate the effect of 6-3-3-4 system of education on Nigeria students’ academic performance.