TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi-viii
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the study
Scope and Limitation of the study
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of terms
Teachers attitude towards mathematics
Students negative attitude toward mathematics
Teachers teaching experience
Teachers knowledge of subject matter
Achievement in mathematics
The use of teaching aids
Area of the Study
Population of the study
Sampling and Sampling Techniques
Instruments for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of instrument
Administration of Research Instrument
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study investigate the factors that must be considered in the development of the nation’s educational system. It focuses on teacher’s characteristics and achievement in computer science among some selected senior secondary schools. Computer Science is one of the subjects required for any technology development of any nation today. Therefore the study is designed to review characteristic of teacher and achievement in Computer science. The population for this study consisted of 90 respondents in secondary school. The project has taken Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State as case study using five (5) senior secondary schools in the local government. The students questionnaire was divided into two section. Section “A” was designed for personal data of the students. Section ‘B’ was designed to find out the attitude of the teachers towards Computer science, twenty questions were constructed in section B. This study has considered various factors affecting student’s performance in Computer Science among senior secondary schools. It has made the researcher to visit many schools, teachers both male and female to elicit information from them about the teachers characteristic and achievement in Computer science. The general conclusion was that teachers character ristics play a significant role in the achievement of any subject. Conclusively, it was discovered that, teachers qualification enhance the achievement in Computer science and also instructional materials and other equipment improve the achievement in computer science. As a result of the findings, appropriate recommendations were made to help eradicate or reduce negative attitude toward Computer science to the barest minimum. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that trained and specialized teacher should be employed so as to have necessary achievement in Computer science in all classes of the senior secondary schools.
Background of the Study
Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. It is the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating
Adesina (2000), also revealed that teachers are the primary indicator and determinant of the quality of education. Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the knowledge of teachers and knowledge that exists in many forms.
Teacher must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. Teachers who master the material will pass the contents more clearly and provide better explanations than those with weaker backgrounds. Perspective of students to teachers in this mastery of the material have a significant influence on students academic performance.
According to Eggen and Kaunchk (2008), positive attitudes of teachers is essential for effective learning. Ways to deal with student-teacher affect student’s attitudes towards school and academic performance of students. How student’s perception of their teachers attitudes while teaching in the classroom be measured in this study are qualifications, Experience and teaching skills.
Ehindero and Ajibade (2010) asserts that students are stakeholders in education, and has been suspected and speculated about some of their teachers do not have the necessary professionals qualifications. In a sense, skills, techniques, strategies are needed to convey concepts, ideas, principles and means to facilitate effective learning.
Obanyan (2009) says that teacher are considered instrumental to translate content standards into the subject matter in the classroom. The teacher remains a constant factor in the successful implementation of educational programs. Ajayi(2006) found that the classroom teacher is one of the major determinants of students achievement as training is most important as a determinant of students academic performance. On the contrary, Husen (2000) reported that increased in-service is accompanied by low achievement levels by students especially where the training is assumed to be for only teachers of low scoring students.
It is very important to look into teachers characteristics in student’s performance in Computer Science. Computer Science as a compulsory subject in the Secondary School records poor performance of students.
Computer Science is regarded as the key to all science and technology subject, without a good foundation in Computer Science, student would not be able to do well in Science and Technology. It is very important to note that boys and girls in secondary school usually run away from computer classes without any regard for its being a compulsory subject.
Obi (2000) noted that for the effective teaching of Computer Science, the teacher must be well equipped with the idea of what he or she is going to teach in the classroom. Appropriate method of teaching is also required while supporting the fact that it is necessary to be knowledgeable about a particular concept, it is also necessary to know how to impact the knowledge adequately. The teacher must know the best techniques and method of presenting his/her ideas to his or her pupils, bearing in mind their interest, needs and individual differences.
Kolawole (2005) Stated that creative teaching requires new materials and thoughtful activities such as learning single as learning skill, procedures analysis of problem and application of generalization.
Therefore, a good teacher must have a sound knowledge of the contents, method and above all good attitudes to work. Based on the general belief that Computer Science is regarded as the foundation of all science subjects there is need to handle its teaching effectively. He further observed that falling standing in performance of pupils in Computer Science in the secondary school could attribute to the teacher’s characteristics toward its effectively teaching.
Education is the primary agent of transformation towards sustainable development. It increases people’s capacities to transform their visions for society into reality. All countries strive for quality education for their sustainable development. The Federal Government of Nigeria had adopted Education as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development. If education has be adopted as the only tool that can solve the socio-economic problems of Nigeria, then the adequate supply of effective teaching becomes the core of the educational and the quality of teachers.
This view is adequately reflected in the National Policy on Education in section 9.59 on the purpose of teacher education on that, teacher education will continue to be given a major emphasis in all educational planning because no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers.
National Policy on Education which sees Computer Science as one of the “vehicles” of Science and Technology. Many schools certificate student become victim of examination disappointment and academics frustration. This problem, no doubt, is a powerful factor against student career choice especially in a country that place great emphasis on paper qualification and certification.
Recently, there was lack of science teacher in Ekiti State especially in Computer Science. There came also the needs for teachers to teach, but unfortunately the number of qualified teachers available were just not enough and this led to an influx of less qualified or non qualified teachers in schools to teach Computer Science. Ojo (2009), therefore, lamented over low employment of Computer Science teachers in secondary Education. Grabble (2004) attributed the lack of effective teaching in schools to the shortage of qualified teachers, experience and over-loading the few qualified ones with volume of work. Though, Armstrong (2008) further stressed and cautioned that “study is hard work and before “the gate of academics excellence, higher goals have replaced sweat”, study may therefore be described as a determined purposeful pattern geared towards learning.
Many more factors apart from teachers’ qualification and the volume of work undertaken have been identified by researchers as the causes of the mass failure of student in Computer Science. For example, Oshiodu (2005), Adedeji (2001) opined that some of the reasons attributed to low performance in Computer Science in Secondary Schools are the poor methodology by the teacher, poor study habits, home background, sex differences, facilities in the school, and a host of them.
However since teacher’s qualification, experience have direct relation to the performance of student in Computer Science, hence, it must not be overlooked.
The new method English defines qualification as the act of qualifying, Chambers Universal Learners’ dictionary defines competency as capability and skill of doing certain things within the ambi of the law. Qualification is the main determinant of pace of development and the effective implementation of educational policies in educating people effectively, it is a major criteria for been effective.
Abas(2009) defines that an effective teacher has a current and through knowledge of his subject matter. Ogunsola(2010) maintained that schools need computer science teachers who are creative and knowledgeable to the extent that they can make children appreciate the dignity of Computer Science. Same people uphold that the quality of a teacher is an important factor in student’s acquisition of knowledge and skills in any subject.
Sikiru (2007) in his pre-election campaign speech to principles of public schools stated that teaching is not like inducing a chemical reaction rather, it is like painting a picture, acting a play or making a piece of music. It demand a great amount of this detention and personal involvement, which is very common, unfortunately, in most cases teaching is in the hands of many who have not the self-devotion attachment and even qualification; training and retraining which is the goal of this team”. It therefore becomes necessary if education is to be maintained highly at all level, that a uniform basic entry qualification should be adopted in all aspect of education.
This is the opinion of the Chairman National Basic Education Commission at the inauguration of the National Institute Programme of retaining the teachers to meet the effective teaching in June 2006, he furthered stated that the policy statement on education is necessary so as to have the lowest qualification one must attain before teaching in any educational institution which is the National Certificate of Education (N.C.E). This should afford the teacher to be acquainted with modern teaching techniques aid curriculum.
Oyebode (2007) in his own contribution wants the government to train and retrain those who are faced with challenges of man power. The government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1981 adopted Education as an instrument for effecting national development.
Adeogun (2001), found that the quality of any education system depends on the quality of teachers. Related literature indicates that the most important school‐based determining factor of students achievement is the teacher quality (Harris and Sass, 2008). Therefore, there is need to assess the characteristics of the secondary school teachers in terms of qualification, experience and teaching methodology in order to ensure quality of education given to the youths. The teachers should be in-serviced where gaps are identified to enable them to cope with the requirements of the dynamic school curriculum (Murunga et al., 2013).
Usman 2012, a qualified teacher can be defined as one who holds a teaching certificate and/or licensed by the state, owns at least a Bachelor’s degree from a four-year institution and well qualified in his/her area of specialization. Moreover, Usman quotes the Nigeria Ministry of Education officials who described a qualified teacher as one who possesses knowledge of: the subject matter, human growth and development, ethical values, instructional planning and strategies, assessment, learning environment, communication and advocacy, collaboration and partnership, continuous professional development, code of conduct and skillful use of information communication technologies. The educators, government, parents and society in general have constantly been interested in the academic achievement of students. (Yusuf and Adigun, 2010)
Adeyemi 2010, stated that teachers play an important role in determining the students‟ academic achievement. Researchers have never reached a consensus on the specific teacher factors that influence students‟ academic achievement. Some studies found that teachers’ experience and educational qualifications significantly influenced students’ academic achievement (Olaleye, 2011).
Statement of Problem
The current situation of teachers qualification on students’ academic performance in Nigeria is a concern to all including Government and the society at large. Research indicates that many students found teaching to be difficult, boring and not interesting to them (Salau, 1995, 1996). Large class sizes, inadequate funding, insufficient curriculum resources, poor teaching skills and lack of supports for teachers among other factors further limit the quality of teacher on students’ academic performance in Nigerian schools (Okebukola, 1997). To solve these lingering problems one needs to develop a realistic picture of what is currently happening in the teaching and learning of Computer Science in Nigerian schools and also to identify the factors that are limiting the quality of teachers.
Furthermore, one needs to develop a reasonable ideal picture for which the nation can strive towards the existing resource limitations. Since the subject taught comes directly from the teacher, it is pertinent to research into how qualities affect the students’ performance in Computer Science.