- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Motivation comes from the Latin root “movers” which means to move. So motivation can mean the process of arousing the interest of an individual to take a move towards a certain goal. Harzberg (1978), defines motivation as all those phenomena which are involved in the stimulation of actions toward particular objectives where previously, there was little or no movement towards these goals. Waitley (1996), defines motivation as the inner drive which prompts people act in a certain way. Motivation involved a number of psychological factors that start and maintained activities towards the achievement of personal goals. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behaviour towards subjects matter Ormord (2003).
Motivation of teachers and students in teaching and learning process can direct behaviour towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy enhance cognitive processing, increase initiation of and persistence in activities, determine what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improved performance. Orphlims (2002) is of the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job, they are more quality oriented and are more productive. Therefore, it means that motivated teachers are determine, to give their, best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education). Motivation can be in the form of regular payment of salary, fringe benefit, such as allowance, bonus on the job training, promotion of the teachers, provision of good working environment, maintaining high degree of relationship and improving the teachers general well being. Hence, any teacher that enjoys the above named items is band to give all his best in discharging of his duty because, he would derive satisfaction of being a teacher.
In educational sector, motivation plays a great role. When teachers are motivated, this will lead to good performance and high productivity to the sustain of the national growth and development and also, the welfare of its citizens at large. According to Alu, Eya, Odo, Ede and Ugwu (2001) education is an ancient enterprise designed to be the vehicle of social change and over development of self, culture and society. Education is a process designed to help all human beings to grows into persons.
In the view of the above the national policy on education (1981), section one paragraph two stated that the “Nigerians philosophy of education, therefore is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizens and equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the nation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, both inside and outside the formal school system. Consequently, the Nigeria policy on education section nine paragraph 57, stated that “teachers’ education will continue to be given a major emphasis in all our educational planning because, no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Therefore, various purposes or aims of teachers’ education should be inculcated into our schools. It will be necessary for the provision of highly motivated, conscious and efficient classroom teachers for all level of our educational system and also to encourage teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession.
Also motivation has an effect on the society in various ways for the development of the nation of the hallmarks of the development and economic prosperity while low performance create problem of underdevelopment. Since the future of the country lies with the students, so those students need to be well educated, so that they can be equipped with the knowledge and skills to pilot the affairs of this country. Therefore, the impact of motivation on the academic performance of JSS computer teachers in secondary schools in Ado Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State to the students when properly treated, it will lead to good performance and high productivity to the sustenance of the national progress.
Societies all over the world have used education as an instrument for the achievement of their national interests and objectives. Education is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. It fosters the worth and development of the individual, for the individuals sake and for the general development of the society (National Policy on Education, 2004). All these call for functional education for the promotion of a progressive and united country. Therefore, school programs need to be relevant, practical and comprehensive, while interest and ability should determine the individuals direction in education. It is only when these factors come together that we can achieve the nations objectives
On one hand, looking at the number of students that graduate from secondary schools every year, one may say that secondary education is trying to fulfill these obligations. But on the other hand, considering the quality of those students that graduate every year, it looks like secondary education is not realizing the goals and objectives for which it is set up. According to Uwadiae (2006), as long as there are still examination malpractices in secondary schools, the goals and objectives of secondary education are not being realized. Elaborating on this he says that, the percentage of reported cases of examination malpractice against Edo State of Nigeria, for example, has been on the increase. The state was 18th in 2001, 17th in 2002, 9th in 2003, 7th in 2004 and has increased to be the 4th ranked state with cases of examination malpractice in 2005. This monster has cast some level of doubt on whether secondary education fulfills its objectives and on the veracity of any good academic performance. If the number of reported cases of examination malpractice could be as high, how are we sure that the number of unreported cases, some of which formed part of the good performance, are not as high or even higher? If examination malpractice is increasing every year in secondary education in Edo State of Nigeria, it implies that students are not being prepared well for higher institution. As Uwadiae (2006) said, the issue of examination malpractice in the secondary education should be a food for thought for all of us because it betrays the aim and goal of secondary education and reveals a lacuna in our secondary education.
In the opinion of Awanbor (2005), this lacuna in our secondary education among other things is lack of students motivation. It is the opinion of Rusillo and Arias (2004), that there is significant influence of academic motivation on learning at school. Awanbor (2005) holds that students, who lack sufficient level of academic motivation exhibit a weak drive towards the pursuit of academic goals. Such students manifest signs and symptoms of indifference and apathy towards school. Majority of such students, if not all, are those who are involved in examination malpractices.
Furthermore, Awanbor (2005) noted that because of poor motivation due to inadequate remuneration, poor teaching environment as a result of lack of basic teaching materials, listless and unmotivated learners in the classroom, among others, the teachers have become the endangered species in their own profession. They no long teach and the students in turn no longer learn. He suggested that students should be academically motivated as this will go a long way to solving most of the problems faced in education system and also increase students academic performance. He further remarked that motivating students will help them to be more responsible and have more interest in studies. He also holds that motivation of students will reduce, if not completely eliminate, high school dropout rates, low enrolment rates, truancy, etc. In the view of Renchler (1992), every educator needs to be concerned about motivation. It is a quality that students, teachers, parents, school administrators and other members of the community must have if our educational system is to prepare young people adequately for the challenges and demands of the coming century. Of course, the way these various groups of individuals generate and use motivation differs greatly. Students need motivation to learn, parents need it to track the educational progress of their sons and daughters, teachers need it to become better teachers and school administrators need it to ensure that every facet of the schools they manage continues to improve. How true is this claim that students are not academically motivated in Edo State of Nigeria? It is against this background that this study investigated the impact of motivation on the performance of JSS computer teachers in secondary schools in Ado Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The teacher is basically saddled with the responsibility of transferring knowledge, skills, attitudes and techniques to his pupils. The teacher makes an attempt to help people to acquire some skills, attitudes, knowledge, ideas and applications. Thus, the teacher’s task is to influence or create desirable changes in behaviour in his or her own pupils. The teacher often guides the pupils through a series of planned activities so that his pupils may acquire the highest learning possible form their experiences.
The teacher is a critical element in the teaching-learning situation. What he does or does not do affects learning in a proud way. This has shown that the quality of teaching makes a considerable difference in students’ learning and performance. This implies that the teacher is the key factor in whether a child learns well or not. Thus, for the teacher to be able to transfer knowledge, ideas and skills to the pupils, he or she must be well motivated. It is therefore in line with this that the researcher intends to examine the impact of staff motivation on student’s performance.
The success of any system of education depends to a large extent on the number of teachers, their quality and their devotion to duty and their effectiveness on the job. It is as a result of this central position of the teacher that it is often said that no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers. There are certain qualities expected of a good teacher: The teacher as a moulder of lives must be an embodiment of good character. A good teacher is the type whose personal life sets a good example to his pupils. He/She must like people especially the young ones. The teacher with good sense of humour and care for the young ones instills confidence in the parents that their children are in safe hands. Students soon get to know the teacher that is sincere and honest.
A good teacher is always friendly and helpful to his students. Being aggressive does not help the situation as it will only distant the students from the teacher, thus making it difficult for him to understand their problems. A good teacher always takes interest in his students’ genuine personal problems and shows a lot of understanding in assisting to solve them. He treats any personal problems of his students with utmost confidentiality with a view to enlisting their confidence.
He must always show cooperation to the parents of his students in finding solution to their confidence.
The import of the above is that the teacher plays a significant role in bringing about positive attitudinal change in the students. All learning therefore, results from the teacher who is the instructor. Through the teacher, the pupils learn.
The teacher has to provide motivation for his learner. The learner has to be excited, interested, attentive and eager to participate in the learning activity. Use of positive reinforcement and incentive programming is essential in maintaining motivation.
However, a teacher who is not motivated will hardly regard the principles mentioned above. The teacher has to be energized before he can take positive steps to impart skills and knowledge into his pupils. Motivation refers to what energizes a person to behave in a particular way. It is a complex concept that deals with people’s wants, needs, demands and desires. Motivation is central in energizing an individual to seek to teach or remain ready to teach. A motivated teacher strives to put effort together in the classroom so as to affect the students positively. Thus, motivation is a push, a propellant or a force that activates a teacher to teach. This implies that when a teacher is highly motivated it affects the students positively.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is obvious that professional trained teachers always give in their best in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. However, it is pertinent that teachers’ activities must be compensated or rewarded as an encouragement as well as enabling them to work harder in order to achieve the main objective of teaching and learning. The absent of motivation has a negative effect in the standard of education in the country as the students are being deprived of the needed knowledge because the teachers are to motivated to impact the needed knowledge. Hence, the problems associated with this negative attitude towards motivation result to this:
Teachers do not give their best, due to o payment or salary by the authority to the teachers’ student’s inadequate knowledge as a result of not being taught adequately since the teachers are not motivated to give in their best, Teachers life look deplorable as they are being deprived of their benefit they ought to enjoy and mike them effective as efficient in their teaching job, low standard of education in the country is noted since the qualitative education needed is absential. Society human resources will be lagging since the character and knowledge moulder (teacher) cannot satisfactorily perform his duty.
Therefore, the resultant effect of this problem affects the society at large, since the educational sector cannot produce the desired result as designed in the national policy of education.
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