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THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC RECESSION ON THE TEACHING OF HOME ECONOMICS IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page…………………………………………………………….i

Certification……………………………………………………….…ii

Dedication…………………………………………………………….iii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………iv-v

Table of Contents…………………………………………………vi-viii

Abstract …………………………………………………………….ix-x

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study ………………………………………….1-11

Statement of the Problem           …………………………………………….11

Purpose of the Study………………………………………………..11

Research Questions………………………………………………….11

Research Hypothesis…………………………………………………12

Significance of the study……………………………………………..12-13

Limitation of the study……………………………………………….13

Definition of Terms……………………………………………………13-14

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Concept of Teaching Home Economics……………………….15-19

Teaching and Facilities…………………………………………19-20

Economic Recession…………………………………………….20

The effect of economic recession on teaching quality

and student outcomes…………………………………………21-23

The Impact of recession on Teachers’ Salaries……………….23-24

Learning Environment………………………………………….24-26

Instructional materials and the teaching-learning process…….26-29

The effect of economic recession on the teaching of

Home Economics……………………………………………….29-33

Summary of Review Literature ………………………………..33-34

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research design ………………………………………………..35

Area of the study………………………………………………36

Population of the study………………………………………..36

Sample and sampling technique(s)…………………………….36

Instrument for data collection………………………………….37

Validation of the instrument……………………………………37

Reliability of the instrument……………………………………37-38

Administration of instrument………………………………….38

Data analysis techniques……………………………………….38

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION……………………….39-46

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary………………………………………………………..47

Conclusion………………………………………………………47-48

Recommendation………………………………………………..48

References……………………………………………………….49-52

Questionnaire…………………………………………………53-55

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted on the effect of economic recession on the teaching of Home Economics in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Five research questions were developed to capture the topic and questionnaire is designed to elicit information from the respondents which comprise of teachers and students of the selected schools, 100 population samples were randomly selected from two schools in Ekiti and Ondo State.  The importance of the study seeks to establish the effect of economic recession on the teaching of Home Economics in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. The results obtained from this empirical process provide tangible evidence to key stakeholders so as to address the crisis in the education system in a collective and collaborative manner. It also envisaged the results used to engage cooperating partners and funding agencies who might wish to positively intervene to address some of the pressing problems. In analyzing data gathered for this study, the researcher employed a descriptive statistics by the use of frequency statistical table and simple percentage to analyze the demographic data collected. As a result of the findings, appropriate recommendations were made to help eradicate or reduce negative attitude towards the teaching of home Economics to the barest minimum.  Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that trained and specialized teacher should be employed so as to have necessary achievement in Home Economics.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Education is the greatest tool for the development of any nation, the major objectives of sending our children to school is to help them learn some basic concepts, skills, knowledge and beliefs necessary for the development of some specific goals. Observations have shown that in every level of schooling whether at the primary, secondary or tertiary level of education, there are basic facilities which make it possible for the school to attain her desired goals.  Education has been placed at the centre of public debate as a result of the 2008 financial collapse and the ongoing economic crisis. The main thrust of this debate centres around a justification of the role of higher education and a redefinition of its funding relationship with government. Nevertheless, most of the discussion fails to mention the impact of the economic crisis on higher education. To me, this is important because the economic crisis has changed higher education at both the micro and macro levels. The immediate shorter-term impact of the economic crisis has been at the institutional micro level. Lower student numbers on certain programmes – the most expensive ones and those with lower job prospects – has led senior managers in universities to prepare for the worst by making plans to reduce staff at all levels and rationalise their portfolio of programmes.

Eze (2010) stated that home economics is the education for living. It is the study of all that relate to home and family. It is the area of study that provides the necessary knowledge guiding and assisting human being to be able to attain a more self reliance and fulfilled life. Home economics deals with all aspects of family living, Determine the needs of individuals and families and become responsible and effective members of family and community through effective home making and gainful employment. Ezeoma (2012) viewed that home economics is a skill-oriented subject that can equip an individual with the basic skill and knowledge that will help one to be self-employed and so contribute effectively to the socio-economic development of the family and the society.

Akinola (2008) pointed out that Home Economics is capable of preparing youths and adults for entry into s Home Economics occupations. This shows that as a vocational subject, Home Economics contributes to manpower development by equipping individuals with reliable occupational skills, which leads to self-reliance. Home Economics can also help individuals (male and female) acquire basic skills needed for gainful employment and family living. It could also be known that Home Economics as a field of study does not exclude gender, age or any other classification (Usuka 2014 ). Home Economics is a very important subject in the University Curriculum. The programme has many career opportunities, for the University graduates. It also prepares individual for happy family life. Both male and female students study the subject at the University. However, Home Economics is one of the courses which attract the lowest enrolment of students both at the university and other tertiary institutions. Akuzuilo (2009), stated that Home Economics education is one of the courses which attract lowest enrolment of students in secondary and tertiary levels of education. Besides, the low enrolment pattern, Home Economics education show wide disparity between male and female students in favour of females. Both low enrolment and gender disparity in enrolment have been attributed to wrong awareness (perception) of the meaning and the roles of Home Economists (Olaitan, 2010). It is therefore of paramount importance to investigate the factors/reasons which students from studying Home Economics at the University of Ilorin and students’ view on the roles of Home Economics programme on graduation from the University.

The low students’ enrolment of Home Economics in the University of Ilorin calls for much concern. This could be due to certain problems relating to the teaching/learning of the subject. Some likely causes include; some parents do not encourage their children to study Home Economics. Lack of equipment and facilities for practicals (Imonikebe, 2011). One of the reasons why students do not like to study Home Economics may be due to its expensive nature.

Anyakoha (2009) pointed out that the potential of an educational system is directly related to the qualification of the teacher. The more qualified and well-trained teachers are, the easier it is curriculum to be executed and the better achievement by the student. The need for the students to be taken for excursion to various Home Economics establishment such as in clothing and textiles, Home management, Food and Nutrition establishments was recommended by Ovute, (2001). This could motivate students to study Home Economics. The Federal Government should be more seriously involved in the funding of Home Economics courses in order to overcome the problems of lack of finance (Olafemi 2010). Teaching people about the importance of Home economics is very necessary. There should be enlightenment campaigns through seminars and mass media about the importance of Home Economics and the career opportunities that subject provides.

Eze (2010) recommended that parents should encourage their sons and daughters to develop interest and select Home Economics as a subject of study in schools; that there should be no mark sex discrimination in the activities and games which boys and girls are allowed to participate at home: that parents should encourage their sons to choose Home Economics and related discipline; that careers in Home Economics are attractive and highly remunerated; that Home Economics teachers should not only teach their subject but also guidance counsellors to their students especially boys; that there should be emphasis on the provision of teaching facilities and career education that will help to attract boys and girls to study Home Economics. Ovi (2010) recommended the excursion or field trips as method of teaching Home Economics in all levels of education.

Economic recession is a period of general economic decline and is typically accompanied by a drop in the stock market, an increase in unemployment, and a decline in the housing market. Generally, a recession is less severe than a depression. The blame for a recession generally falls on the federal leadership, often either the president himself, the head of the Federal Reserve, or the entire administration.

Unemployment can leave lasting negative impacts. Firstly, unemployment is very stressful and can damage the persons morale, and even health. Areas of high unemployment tend to experience more social problems. High unemployment can be factors in creating social instability such as riots. Mass unemployment in Spain and Greece is threatening the social fabric of the countries.

The unemployed lose the opportunity to gain skills and on-the job training. Long-term unemployment can make it harder for the worker to gain a job in the future; it can even cause people to give up and drop out of the labour market completely.

However there are new considerations that will make future recessions harder: higher enrollments in general and of poorer students in particular; the different impact of higher education costs depending on one’s generation – one generation attends school during “good times” with small tuition increases (or even tuition cuts) and generous financial aid; then the next generation attends during the bad times and encounters double digit tuition increases and cuts to financial aid. Also in the future the mismatch between the current public policies and students’ needs will be exacerbated. Most of the recent increases in student aid have been for the middle class in the form of merit aid and tax credits. Most of the projected increase in numbers of students will come from families not able to take advantage of those program. The policy underlying the 6:3:3:4 system of education in Nigeria is to enable students acquire knowledge and preliminary vocational training relevant to eventual self-reliance. The attainment of this policy would depend largely on the interaction between the learners (students) and the school environment; any shortfall from them may inhibit the students’ overall learning outcome.

The student belongs to several environments such as the home, school and the community where he lives; all these contribute to their right to learn, develop and live. The term learning environment has been used by many writers.

Whereas some see learning environment as the physical characteristics of the school environment, others take it as the teaching staff, leadership styles, morals and co-operations among others. However, Burden and Fraser sees it as the total learning  environment where the child finds himself, which include the norms of the school system and the pattern of grouping of the learner for learning. This is why the classroom is a major component of the learning environment. Dorman et al. see the classroom as a critical place for pupils’ interpersonal and educational development. In all, a good classroom is essential for effective learning to take place.

Iheama (2015), noted that good classroom environments are those with adequate equipment for teaching and learning, with motivated teachers who use standard teaching methodologies and have adequate facilities. In other words, schools that do not meet this standard may not be able to provide good learning environment for proper leaning to take place.

This study was motivated by the desire to understand the perception of students of their classroom learning environment as an educational phenomenon, crucial to students’ interest in school subjects. Home economics, an integrated subject having orientation of creativity, ought to be taught in the laboratory. However, most Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria are not properly quipped or non-existent; as a result, the subject is mostly taught in normal classrooms. The study therefore attempt to assess student’s perception of their home economics classroom learning environment in Nigeria tertiary Institutions.

All stakeholders in education desire a classroom in which the subject matter is relevant, learning is exciting and students are supported and encouraged to acquire new knowledge. There have been series of research on classroom as learning environment, quantitative and qualitative method have been utilized and a wide varieties of questionnaire have been developed and used for this purpose. Creating a successful classroom where learning is highly valued is the sole responsibility of the teacher.

Willen, 2008, a major part of building a supportive climate for learning is the use of appropriate method of teaching school subjects.

Results of the current situation in Nigerian schools, shows that teachers favoured the use of  lecture method for almost all subjects. Also classroom observational studies have indicated that teachers’ instructional methods were at variance with the method implied.

This evidence was partly supported by Imariagbe 2011and Okeke 2009 where it was revealed that the overall pattern of intellectual transactions in secondary schools in Nigeria was teacher dominated, extremely didactic and theoretical. The teacher only presented the facts and principles contained in the standard recommended textbooks and students were rarely involved in practical experiences other than very infrequent teacher demonstration experiments. This teaching approach differs substantially from what is obtained elsewhere.

Over the years the link between students’ achievements and classroom learning has been researched into. Dorman et al. Writes that every school has a passive climate which has an influence on the behavior of both teachers and students to succeed in teaching and learning. If teachers have a supportive and conducive working environment, a better students’ achievement will result.

In addition, Fisher et al, 2005, adapted the learning model to give an indication that a teacher’s interpersonal behaviour in the classroom significantly affects the performance of students in chemistry, which indicates that teachers’ behavior influences students’ outcomes. Home economics educationists have over the years advocated well equipped home economics laboratories for home economics practical classes which meet the yearning of students over the years.

Low enrolment in home economics and other school subjects have also been traced to the classroom learning environment. Oyedeji identified the classroom environment as the militating factor which constantly interact to generate or degenerate cognitive and affective readiness. In addition, Mba [2015] identified the teacher factor as one of the problems of the low level of acceptance of home economics as a school subject. In her opinion, methods utilized by the teachers in home economics classrooms are obsolete and have rendered the subject uninteresting.

According to Tanvi 2016, the teacher, the way he teaches, instructional process, the way he/she manages the students during the teaching and learning process has effect on the students’ learning outcome.

Level of performance among students in Nigeria tertiary institutions  has been fully linked to classroom environment variables.

For instance, Koreau and Nbina 2009, indicated that poor physical structures such as classrooms, incompetent teachers and inadequate instructional materials were responsible for poor performance of students in most school subjects. Koreau specifically identified variables such as, poor laboratories and uncondusive classrooms as some of the major causes of poor performance of students in schools.

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