Background of the Study
Teaching and learning activities are interesting when instructional materials are used effectively and efficiently in a classroom-teaching situation. It is necessary for the teacher in the learning of computer science in Nigeria to use visual aid material as instructional tools in order to make their teaching more interesting that is to arouse the learning interest, sustain their attention for effective learning. But the problem in many secondary schools in Ekiti state as else where in Nigeria is that of the instructional material like audio/visuals are not available and even where they are, the teachers do not use them effectively.
The reason for this attitude may be because teachers engage themselves in so many other relevant or irrelevant activities. The desire and haste of some teacher to cover the syllabus or scheme of work instead of making their teaching more meaningful and imparting. Often time some teaching goals depend on material for planning and utilization of instructional material for some teacher the production of instructional material is only for passing their examination the training college and not for actual use in the classroom.
There is also problem of non-availability of audio/visual for which teachers alone may not be blamed. The heads often do not motivate the teacher in terms of providing instructional materials.
Furthermore, most school lack of funds and as a result, they find it difficult to purchase the required audio/visual aid.
Generally, failure to use audio/visual material in the teaching of Social studies result in lack of interest among student in learning activities which affect performance in school and pupils not being able to assimilate lesson at their own rate and pace.
The use of devices or audio-visual materials will stimulate the greatest number of senses. For this reason, good teachers have always used devices or audio-visual materials. A device is any means, other than the subject-matter to the learner.
A device is an incentive introduced into the method of teaching for the purpose of stimulating the pupil and developing understanding through experiencing. The basis for all learning is experience, and usually the most effective type of learning is gained by concrete, direct, first-hand experience.
Teachers are often unable to give pupils first-hand experiences and resort to the written and oral use of words. The experienced teacher, however, realizes that the use of words alone cannot and will not, provide vivid learning experience.
Good teachers are constantly on the alert for methods and devices that will make learning meaningful. With the wise selection and use of a variety of instructional devices or audio-visual materials, experiences can b; provided that will develop understanding.
Many factors affect pupil’s performance in secondary schools. Among these factors are the student’s social-economic background, the standard of the school, choice of textbooks and teaching aids. In this study, only one variable teaching aid would be considered for treatment i.e. the influence of audio-visual aids in effective dissemination of knowledge.
In most developed countries, teaching aids are well utilized in the classroom. Teaching aids is very essential in our world of teaching. They motivate the child if well chosen.
Ehiametalor (1985), in this article on “the peculiarities of research project in educational administrator content that in the next few years, students will spend more time working with the computer.” This is due to his identification of teaching aids as an integral part of learning process.
Educational aids are the items or equipment and materials which could aid teaching and learning. Audio visual materials are scientific teaching aids for the learning, through the visual projection and sound reproduction. These are capable of been seen and heard. They include 16mm sound films, 8mm films and television (Associate ship certificate education series) in 1981.
It is therefore very essential for teachers to use4 audio visual aids to make teaching effective, interesting and meaningful. In this light, this project is designed to; find out the extent teaching aids can help the students in their academic performance at schools.
In directing the learning of the pupils through normal activities, the teacher will find that visual or audio-visual materials are used very extensively, Since the seventeenth century, when Comenius produced the Orbis Pictus, the extent to which teachers have been turning to visual materials as instructional aids has been increasing.
Likewise, Rousseau” stressed the value of visual education in his book, Emile. Object-teaching and object-lesson were also emphasized by Pestalozzi. Dr. Sheldon44 of the Oswega Normal School in Canada introduced the idea into the United States. The experience of the American Army during the last world war showed the educational importance of devices such as movies, film- strips, the radio, and other pictorial materials for educational purposes.
The Army contrived devices that served well to awaken interest. Our society today is blessed with modern trends of communication. Never before have teachers possessed materials which will allow their pupils or students so completely to relieve the past, visit foreign lands, hear speeches of the world’s great men and women, or view planets of outer space.
These modern media are among the tools the modern teachers utilize in promoting growth and development of the pupils. The number of devices that maybe employed in teaching any subject will depend upon the nature of the subject-matter and the resourcefulness of the teacher.
Psychologists have long recognized the importance of concrete illustration in teaching. Devices whether visual or audio-visual materials, are valuable in the learning-teaching process because they stimulate interest and make possible the enrichment of the pupil’s experience.
It is generally admitted by educators that some people are able to comprehend abstractly, while others are more dependent upon concrete materials as aids to thought. It has been generally recognized that the more brilliant the individual is, the greater is his power for abstract thought; the lower the mentality, the greater is the dependence upon visual imagery as a medium of thought.
Recent studies show that the average and dull pupils need the use of material devices more than the bright pupils.
The modern pupil is literally surrounded with endless profusion of aids to his learning, such as workbooks, drill cards, graphs, pictures, maps, slides, film strips, motion pictures, radio and exhibits of all kinds.
Television also offers great possibilities for use in the classroom. This situation grows out of the demands of an enriched and diversified curriculum and of the urge to vitalize instruction by providing a broader background of experience for the pupils and means of adjusting learning to the differences in interest and aptitudes of children.
Webster’s Encyclopeadia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, defines Audio-Visual a Aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes”. The term has also been defined by (Dike, 1993) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic.
According to (Anzaku, 2011) “the term audio-visual materials is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language”. Thus according to the above definition, a text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience, for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making diorama. Some of the audio-visual materials like the motion pictures require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all like an exhibit or a study print. T his term designates in common usage both material things as well as processes such as field trips.
Anzaku further stated that audio-visual materials include materials and equipment alike, that materials are considered to be system, or body of content of potential value when put to work, while equipment or instructions, often referred to as hardware, components, are the means of presenting such content. The importance of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning processes cannot be over emphasized. Below are some of the roles of audio-visual materials. Basing learning in sense experience, Extending experience ,Encouraging participation, Stimulating interest ,Individualizes instructions, Serves as a source of information, Making leaning permanent, Basing learning in sense experience: stressing the importance of audio-visual materials, ( Ngozi, Samuel,A.O.andIsaac, O.A., 2012) unanimously agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner in so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that audio-visual materials are the equipment through which that function can occur, that is does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that are stimulated by external occurrences.
Eze, (2013) also states that the human being learns more easily and faster by audio-visual processes than by verbal explanations alone. His ability to arrive at abstract concept through perceptual experience is however a phenomenon not clearly explained and perhaps not explicable. Furthermore, (Oketunji, 2000) stressed that audio-visual materials when effectively used have these advantages. They lessen major weakness of verbalism, humanize and vitalize subject matter, provide interesting approach to new topics and give initial correct impressions, economic time in learning, supply concrete materials needed, stimulate the initiative of the pupils.
Swank, (2011). stressing the effectiveness of visual materials in leaning, estimated that about 40% of our concepts are based upon visual experience, 25% upon auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% upon miscellaous organic sensation and 3% upon taste smell. With the above assertion, it becomes clearer why audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes. This is because, they bring the different senses contributions together to get 100% clarity.
Gopal (2010), stressed that audio-visual materials help the teacher to overcome physical difficulties of presenting subject matter. That is to say, with audio-visual materials, the barrier of communication and distance is broken. The culture and climatic conditions of other countries can be brought into the classroom with the aid of slides, films, filmstrips and projectors. This is important because, according to Dike (1993) “once the phenomenon is visualized, the picture and knowledge becomes very clear and permanent”. Agreeing to this assertion, a 20th century Chinese philosopher stated that “one picture is worth a thousand words”.
Natoli (2011), once again added that “audio-visual materials are rich opportunities for students to develop communication skill while actively engaged in solving meaningful problems”. In other words, students certainly like it more and learn better if they are engaged in important and appealing activities. For example, involving students in bulletin board display will enhance their choice of colour and aid their understanding of the concept in question or when they join the teacher in dramatization of an event or a process.
According to Katherine 2009, “learning takes place effectively when the teacher sets out to provide learning situation in which a child will learn because of his natural reactions of the provided materials”. During the process of learning, the teacher has to provide the learning situation to satisfy the natural reaction of the learner and this is through the use of instructional aids. The attention of the learner is caught and his interest is also won and he is ready to learn. Fawcett Hills (1994) also contributing on the role of audio-visual materials in stimulating interest stated that “A friendly, accepting group climate is important in any learning situations, especially those materials that require students to reveal their ignorance and confront their fellow students”. When there is a climate of acceptance for learning, then learning is stimulated.
Lestage A. (2009) stressed that audio-visual materials provide a means of individualizing instruction. This he said is possible through programmed learning and tapes which enable the learner to learn at his pace and also to work on his own. Moreover, according to Dike (2003) the machine frees the teacher to work with individual students, since he or she is not now required to carry out routine drills. Production of resources by students is another way of individualizing instruction.
Peterson 2011, “the child is to think, but he must have the information to with”. This audio-visual resources serves, because, the information can be got from the good use of perceptual instructional materials especially those provided from our locality. When they are used in the class, their familiarity gives a back-ground for understanding the information.
Mcnaught 2007, also observed that audio-visual materials are very useful teaching and instructional as well as promotional aids. He further stressed that where consistency of presentation is desirable, audio-visual materials are useful. They provides experiences not easily secured in other ways and hence contribute to the depth and variety of learning.
Audio-visual resources can play a major role of making learning permanent, Gopal 2010 stressed that “audio-visual methods do seem to facilitate the acquisition, the retention and the recall of lessons learned, because, they seem to evoke the maximum response of the whole organism to the situations in which learning is done. And perceptual materials readily associate themselves with the unique experiential background of each individual.
Natoli, C. 2011 stressed that audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes because “Having seen something, most people remember, for whatever that thing was, it conjures up an image at a mere mention and can be talked about freely. Dike (1993) also explained that students forget because of lack of interest and opportunities to use the knowledge they have gained later on. Audio-visual resources can therefore contribute to the clarity of information presented by allowing students to visualize what is learned. Thus the saying: What I hear, I forget, What I see, I remember, What I do, I know.
Prostano and Prostano 2002 asserted that the time immemorial, audio-visual materials existed but were not incorporated into educational system”. According to the authors, the advent of audio-visual materials is long but it is the use that has been limited until in the 1960s and 1970s that libraries realized the use of these materials and started incorporating them into the library collections for future use. Summer stressing on the advent of the materials stated that “before man developed speech as a means of communication, he expressed himself in terms of drawings, signals and symbols”. The point here is that the use of audio-visual materials started as early as man’s civilization begin. This is evident in their attempt to communicate ideas.
Green 2005 has this to say; “in time of antiquity, man carried pictures on rocks for conveying ideas”. Ani 2000 supporting the introduction of audio-visual aids observed that as far back as the 1920s audio-visual materials came to be used in teaching in the Nigeria.
Dike 2003, the various methods of teaching informally such as observation, participation and the use of the senses are forms of audio-visual resources in our indigenous Nigerian Education. The child is asked to observe carefully without verbal instructions and to participate in domestic science, craft, and agriculture, the child is able to grasp knowledge from different fields unconsciously. Thus every child has the right to knowledge and information especially that which concerns his cultural heritage”. It is imperative therefore that in cultures whose traditions are essentially of the oral rather than the writer kind, knowledge and information transfer be effected by using verbal instructions and the preservation of their cultural arts. This is the meaning of the story telling sessions in our indigenous African education. In modern times, the value of instructional materials has been realised of late in this country and attempts are being made by all organs connected with education to see that audio-visual materials are used in teaching and learning situations.