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MOTIVATION AS A MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN A SCHOOL SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF STAFFS AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCE.

 

ABSTRACT

This study investigate motivation as a management tools in a school system for improving the efficiency of staffs and students performance. The study covers some selected secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Moreover, the scope of this study is limited to finding the impact of motivation on teachers’ performance and the academic performance of students. The researcher adopted simple random sampling technique to obtain the number of secondary schools to be used. Simple random sampling is a sampling method used in which every item or person in the population is given the equal and independent chance of being selected in the sample. Reliability of the instrument will be ascertained using test re-test method. One of the school not selected for the study will be used. Twenty five (25)  male and female students will be randomly selected in each class. The instrument will be administered on the same set of respondents within a space of two weeks and the data collected will be analyzed by using the Pearson Product moment correlation analysis to compute the reliability index. In analyzing data gathered for this study, the researcher will employ a descriptive statistic by the use of frequency statistical table and simple percentage to analyze the demographic data collected. As a result of the findings, appropriate recommendations were made to help eradicate or reduce negative attitude of motivation to the barest minimum.  Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that trained and specialized teacher should be employed so as to have necessary achievement in all higher institutions of learning

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Motivation comes from the Latin root “movers” which means to move. So motivation can mean the process of arousing the interest of an individual to take a move towards a certain goal. Harzberg (2008), defines motivation as all those phenomena which are involved in the stimulation of actions toward particular objectives where previously, there was little or no movement towards these goals. Waitley (1996), defines motivation as the inner derive which prompts people actin a certain way. Motivation involved a number of psychological factors that start and maintained activities towards the achievement of personal goals. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behaviour towards subjects matter Ormord (2003).

Motivation of teachers and students in teaching and learning process can direct behaviour towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy enhance cognitive processing, increase initiation of and persistence in activities, determine what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improved performance.

Orphlims (2002) is of the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job, they are more quality oriented and are more productive. Therefore, it means that motivated teachers are determine, to give their, best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education). Motivation can be in the form of regular payment of salary, fringe benefit, such as allowance, bonus on the job training, promotion of the teachers, provision of good working environment, maintaining high degree of relationship and improving the teachers general well being. Hence, any teacher that enjoys the above named items is band to give all his best in discharging of his duty because, he would derive satisfaction of being a teacher.

Societies all over the world have used education as an instrument for the achievement of their national interests and objectives. Education is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. It fosters the worth and development of the individual, for the individual sake and for the general development of the society (National Policy on Education, 2004). All these call for functional education for the promotion of a progressive and united country. Therefore, school programs need to be relevant, practical and comprehensive, while interest and ability should determine the individuals direction in education. It is only when these 2 factors come together that we can achieve the national objectives.

In Nigeria, for example, in order to achieve the goals and objectives of education, the government set up 3 levels of education: primary education, secondary education and tertiary education (National Policy on Education, 2004). For the purpose of this research, the discussion is limited to secondary education.

On one hand, looking at the number of students that graduate from secondary schools every year, one may say that secondary education is trying to fulfill these obligations. But on the other hand, considering the quality of those students that graduate every year, it looks like secondary education is not realizing the goals and objectives for which it is set up.

Uwadiae (2006), as long as there are still examination malpractices in secondary schools, the goals and objectives of secondary education are not being realized. Elaborating on this he says that, the percentage of reported cases of examination malpractice has been on the increase. The state was 18th in 2001, 17th in 2002, 9th in 2003, 7th in 2004 and has increased to be the 4th ranked state with cases of examination malpractice in 2005. This has cast some level of doubt on whether secondary education fulfills its objectives and on the veracity of any good academic performance. If the number of reported cases of examination malpractice could be as high, how are we sure that the number of unreported cases, some of which formed part of the good performance, are not as high or even higher? If examination malpractice is increasing every year in secondary education in Edo State of Nigeria, it implies that students are not being prepared well for higher institution.

Uwadiae (2006) said, the issue of examination malpractice in the secondary education should be a food for thought for all of us because it betrays the aim and goal of secondary education and reveals a lacuna in our secondary education. In the opinion of Awanbor (2005), this lacuna in our secondary education among other things is lack of students motivation. It is the opinion of Rusillo and Arias (2004), that there is significant influence of academic motivation on learning at school.

Awanbor (2005) holds that students, who lack sufficient level of academic motivation exhibit a weak drive towards the pursuit of academic goals. Such students manifest signs and symptoms of indifference and apathy towards school. Majority of such students, if not all, are those who are involved in examination malpractices.

Furthermore, Awanbor (2005) noted that because of poor motivation due to inadequate remuneration, poor teaching environment as a result of lack of basic teaching materials, listless and unmotivated learners in the classroom, among others, the teachers have become the endangered species in their own profession. They no long teach and the students in turn no longer learn. He suggested that students should be academically motivated as this will go a long way to solving most of the problems faced in education system and also increase students academic performance. He further remarked that motivating students will help them to be more responsible and have more interest in studies. He also holds that motivation of students will reduce, if not completely eliminate, high school dropout rates, low enrolment rates, truancy, etc.

In the view of Renchler (1992), every educator needs to be concerned about motivation. It is a quality that students, teachers, parents, school administrators and other members of the community must have if our educational system is to prepare young people adequately for the challenges and demands of the coming century. Of course, the way these various groups of individuals generate and use motivation differs greatly. Students need motivation to learn, parents need it to track the educational progress of their sons and daughters, teachers need it to become better teachers and school administrators need it to ensure that every facet of the schools they manage continues to improve.

In educational sector, motivation plays a great role. When teachers are motivated, this will lead to good performance and high productivity to the sustain of the national growth and development and also, the welfare of its citizens at large. According to Alu, Eya, Odo, Ede and Ugwu (2001) education is an ancient enterprise designed to be the vehicle of social change and over development of self, culture and society. Education is a process designed to help all human beings to grows into persons.

In the view of the above the national policy on education (1992), section one paragraph two stated that the “Nigerians philosophy of education, therefore is based on the integration of the individual into a sound and effective citizens and equal educational opportunities for all citizens of the nation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, both inside and outside the formal school system.

Consequently, the Nigeria policy on education section nine paragraph 57, stated that “teachers’ education will continue to be given a major emphasis in all our educational planning because, no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Therefore, various purposes or aims of teachers’ education should be inculcated into our schools. It will be necessary for the provision of highly motivated, conscious and efficient classroom teachers for all level of our educational system and also to encourage teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession.

Also motivation has an effect on the society in various ways for the development of the nation of the hallmarks of the development and economic prosperity while low performance create problem of underdevelopment. Since the future of the country lies with the students, so those students need to be well educated, so that they can be equipped with the knowledge and skills to pilot the affairs of this country.

Therefore, the impact of motivation and academic performance of the students when properly treated, will lead to good performance and high productivity to the sustenance of the national progress.

The issue of teachers’ motivation and quality assurance has become a matter of debate and concern in educational systems and standards. In most developing countries of the world including Nigeria, there has been a growing awareness about teacher motivation which is a key to quality assurance, quality outcomes/delivery and high standards in the educational system. It is acknowledged that any nation that is aspiring to maintain high and quality standards or achieve quality assurance in its educational system must take teachers and their motivational needs with utmost high level of seriousness. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the importance of teachers’ motivation and its influence on quality assurance in the Nigerian educational system. The paper showed the nexus between teachers’ motivation and quality assurance in the Nigerian educational system.

Teachers are important instrument in education. They are also the pivot on which the educational process hang. Teachers play a major role in the whims and caprices of the educational system. They can influence the teaching –learning outcomes either positively or negatively because they determine the quality of instructional delivery and also influence quality education when it comes to implementation of the curriculum and educational policies. They are to be considered when addressing issues such as: quality assurance; quality delivery (teaching), quality context and quality learning outcomes (Onucha, 2002).

The need for effectiveness in secondary schools today cannot be overemphasized.

This is because the many contemporary .A problem that are emerging day in day out as a result of population explosion, diminishing resource and technological changes call for a close examination of what school administrators can do to help to reduce the deteriorating conditions of schools in terms of personnel efficiency and effectiveness. Motivation is a key part of administration. Hence it may be referred to as the “tool of management”. All organisations exist for a purpose to be achieved and if the organs of an organisation are insufficient and ineffective, the aims and objectives of the organisation may not be achieved. Motivation is therefore one of ways of making people to put in their best efforts in an efficient and effective manner in other to achieve an organization’s objectives. A lot of eminent authors have written on motivation with little differences, because they are all aiming at the same goal. They have sought to distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of workers. They have also explained motivation hi terms of needs.

The needs have been categorized into numbers such as two, three, four etc. depending upon the author. But the general consensus is that whatever be the number of needs, needs are basic to motivation and when they are provided to workers, they are motivated and become efficient and effective on their jobs. Also in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the workers the principal needs to provide the basic necessities of work and ensure good working environment. For example lighting in the offices and the classrooms should receive adequate attention. It will help in achieving efficiency and effectiveness because teachers and students would not need to strain their eyes each time they want to perform any task.

Effective communication to staff and students would go a long way in increasing their efficiency and effectiveness, since it will help them to be clear about what, how and when to perform. Another important way to motivate teachers is to mount an adequate training and re- training scheme. In this age of technological advancement, workers need to update themselves from time to time in order to acquaint themselves with the changes that are taking place, therefore, long and short-term training programmes are required for workers if they are to be efficient and effective.

Ejiogu (1990) opined that “teachers’ motivation provides the essential means for control and coordination of activities within a given organization”. For instance, staff training and development is one of the most important elements in efficient administration which is assumed to make workers realize better what they have to do to acquire skills required for proficient performance in order to enhance quality assurance.

Motivation and performance are very important factors in terms of organization success and achievements. If changes occur in external environment then it is necessary for an organization to adopt that change because it may motivates to gain a competitive

For this, the main thing they required is the skilled and competent employees. Latt, (2008). Motivation plays an important role in the organization because it increases the productivity of employees and the goals can be achieved in an efficient way. The behavior of employees can be change through motivation in any organization. From situation to situation, the level of motivation differs with in an individual. Robbins, Judge, and Sanghi, (2005). Motivation also takes part in an important role for teachers because it helps to achieve the target in an efficient way. Teacher motivation is very important because it improves the skills and knowledge of teachers because it directly influences the student’s achievement. Mustafa, and Othman (2010). If in schools, the teachers do not have sufficient motivation then they are less competent which directly influence the students and the education system.

Very few researches had been conducted in Peshawar with respect to school teachers in both public and private school. Therefore, this research was conducted in the context of Peshawar that basically emphasized on performance of teachers through motivation Also in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the workers the principal needs to provide the basic necessities of work and ensure good working environment. For example lighting in the offices and the classrooms should receive adequate attention. It- win help in achieving efficiency and effectiveness because teachers and students would not need to strain their eyes each time they want to perform any task.

Effective communication to staff and students would go a long way in increasing their efficiency and effectiveness, since it will help them to be clear about what, how and when to perform. Another important way to motivate workers is to mount an adequate training and re- training scheme. In this age of technological advancement, workers need to update themselves from time to time in order to acquaint themselves with the changes that are taking place, therefore, long and short-term training programmes are required for workers if they are to be efficient and effective.

However, they are the custodians of the educational and school systems. Since teaching can be regarded as a systematic, rational and organized process of transmitting knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and what is worthwhile (education) in accordance with certain professional principles; there is need for the services of efficient teachers (whose knowledge is bonded with innovations) in order to achieve the educational objectives. Without teachers in the school system, there will definitely be no learning. Teaching makes learning take place and the teacher determines the quality of learning/instructions that will be given to learners. This is the more reason why they should be motivated properly for effectiveness and efficiency in the educational and school system.

A study on the teacher as a crucial factor in curriculum innovation found out that teachers’ empowerment/motivation is related to such dimensions as their involvement in decision making; their professional growth; teacher status and impact; autonomy and self –efficacy. This empowerment is important for the realization and quality of both curriculum and educational innovations. Pilot (2007). Teachers foster excellence in learning and teaching. As designers and developers of education, they guarantee quality assurance in it.

UNESCO (2005) re-emphasized that quality assurance is a powerful means that can improve the effectiveness of education. Its key principle is that the main actors at the forefront of education – such as teachers, head teachers, etc. are responsible for improving educational performance. Teachers are essential elements in the school organization whose cost effectiveness in maintaining them accounts for over 60 percent of the total cost of education.

Their motivation or empowerment should be at the forefront of government policies in order to enhance quality education and attain the goals and objectives of education. Edem, 2002).

Teachers’ motivation is a key to guaranteed quality education, as such influences quality assurance in the educational system. Without efficient and effective teachers in the education industry, qualitative learning outcomes cannot be achieved. That is why they should be motivated properly in order to enhance quality in the educational system. As such any credible analysis of achieving quality education in the Nigerian education system should critically examine the roles played by teachers in enhancing quality assurance in education.

There, motivational strategies that guarantees quality assurance in the educational system. Motivational strategies like staff training and development, promotion, salary, remuneration, working conditions, status and participatory decision making, acted as a barrier towards achieving quality assurance in the educational system. Some challenges that negatively influenced teacher motivation and recommendations were also highlighted. Among such recommendations included: government recognition of teachers motivational needs such as promotion, good salaries and remuneration in order to achieve quality assurance; and staff training, retraining and development as one of teachers’ motivational needs/strategies strengthened in order to promote teachers efficiency, productivity and performance for quality outcomes.

The importance and purpose of this work is to address these issues as it influences quality assurance in the educational system.

The issue of teachers’ motivation and quality assurance has become a matter of debate and concern in educational systems and standards. In most developing countries of the world including, there has been a growing awareness about teacher motivation which is a key to quality assurance, quality outcomes/delivery and high standards in the educational system. It is acknowledged that any nation that is aspiring to maintain high and quality standards or achieve quality assurance in its educational system must take teachers and their motivational needs with utmost high level of seriousness. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to critically discuss the importance of teachers’ motivation and its influence on quality assurance in the educational system.

Teachers are important instrument in education. They are also the pivot on which the educational process hang. Teachers play a major role in the whims and caprices of the educational system. They can influence the teaching –learning outcomes either positively or negatively because they determine the quality of instructional delivery and also influence quality education when it comes to implementation of the curriculum and educational policies. They are to be considered when addressing issues such as: quality assurance; quality delivery (teaching), quality context and quality learning outcomes (Onucha, 2002).

Also in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the workers, the principal needs to provide the basic necessities of work and ensure good working environment. For example lighting in the offices and the classrooms should receive adequate attention. It- win help in achieving efficiency and effectiveness because teachers and students would not need to strain their eyes each time they want to perform any task.

Effective communication to staff and students would go a long way in increasing their efficiency and effectiveness, since it will help them to be clear about what, how and when to perform. Another important way to motivate workers is to mount an adequate training and re- training scheme. In this age of

Statement of the Problem

It is obvious that professional trained teachers always give in their best in carrying out their duties and responsibilities. However, it is pertinent that teachers’ activities must be compensated or rewarded as an encouragement as well as enabling them to work harder in order to achieve the main objective of teaching and learning. The absent of motivation has a negative effect in the standard of education in the country as the students are being deprived of the needed knowledge because the teachers are to motivated to impact the needed knowledge. Hence, the problems associated with this negative attitude towards motivation result to this:

Teachers do not give their best, due to o payment or salary by the authority to the teachers’ student’s inadequate knowledge as a result of not being taught adequately since the teachers are not motivated to give in their best, Teachers life look deplorable as they are being deprived of their benefit they ought to enjoy and mike them effective as efficient in their teaching job, low standard of education in the country is noted since the qualitative education needed is absential. Society human resources will be lagging since the character and knowledge moulder (teacher) cannot satisfactorily perform his duty.

Therefore, the resultant effect of this problem affects the society at large, since the educational sector cannot produce the desired result as designed in the national policy of education (2004).

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Updated: August 10, 2017 — 9:36 pm

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