This study was conducted to investigate the availability of laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of Computer Science in Junior secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. four research questions were developed to capture the topic and questionnaire is designed to elicit information from the respondents which comprise of teachers and students of the selected schools, 200 population samples were randomly selected from five schools in the Local Government Area.
Retrieved questionnaire were collected and analyzed using mean statistics. Any mean below 2.50 is rejected while a mean of 2.5 above is accepted. The finding revealed that there is significant relationship between teaching facilities and students academic performance in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. There is significant relationship between physical facilities, personnel facilities, teaching facilities and teacher’s ability to implement laboratory facilities. There is cordial significant relationship between availability of laboratory facilities and students academic performance.
Background of the Study
Education is the greatest tool for the development of any nation, the major objectives of sending our children to school is to help them learn some basic concepts, skills, knowledge and beliefs necessary for the development of some specific goals. Observations have shown that in even level of schooling whether at the primary, secondary or tertiary level of education, there are basic facilities which make it possible for the school to attain her desired goals school facilities can also be referred to as school plant.
According to Costaldi (2007), school facilities are those materials of education which enables a skillful teacher to achieve a level of instructional effectiveness that exceeds what is possible, when they are not provided, the materials of education or educational facilities are numerous, whatever materials or services that helps to facilitate teaching and learning fall under the term school facilities. They consist of land, buildings, playground, school farm, laboratories, libraries, assembly hall, classrooms, workshops, audio visual aids (radio sets, video sets, tapes) slide projectors and slide flip charts e.t.c. graphics (charts, posters, pictures) photographs, cartoons, graphs maps e.t.c) display materials chalkboard, flannel boards, magnetic boards and many others.
According to national policy on education (2004), it listed the following as part of national education goals;
- The training of the mind in the development of the world around.
- The acquisition of mental, physical and social abilities and competences as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society.
Reomer (2001), referred to education as all those experience of the individual through which knowledge is acquired, the intellect enlightened or will be strengthened’
Education therefore can be regarded as a social process whose purpose is to bring about certain desirable behavioural change in the total development of the individual. In the whole world, education has been given more regard while in Nigeria particularly education has been seen as the main vehicle for rapid development.
It is obvious that since advent of the Europeans, Nigeria have attached much importance to western education. The first type of schools according to Bab fafunwa (2001), were the Islamic and Arabic schools which emerged as a result of the Islamic scholar’s arrival into the country on the pretense of trade. The first set of schools were usually situated under big trees with students who were mainly conducted in the evening after their trading activities with the merchants who acted as the tutors. (mallams). The first type of school didn’t have any facilities apart from the slate and foreign textbooks used.
Furthermore, with the arrival of western education, the use of facilities became vague classrooms are very vital in schools; the classrooms are constructed to suit the purpose of learning. Eagle Hardt 2014, emphasized that classrooms referred to as teaching laboratories should be attached more importance to enable an imagined educational programme to be achieved school facilities are necessary in the school for effective teaching and learning operations. The availability or unavailability of school facilities, insufficiency and bad conditions of the available ones influence the achievement of secondary school student’s performances in both internal and external examinations. It also influences teacher’s instructional effectiveness and their ability to implement continuous assessment. Available researchers have shown that the school heads or administrations on the other hand encounter some difficulties in the general administration of the school due to lack of facilities and bad condition of the available ones, most of the old and new schools are facing resources crisis there are insufficient, inefficient and unstable personnel. The learning programme is being jeopardized by the phenomenon and this subsequently tends to yearly declining in the student’s performance in their final examinations.
What actually are responsible for the yearly declination are the basic motives behind this study which have not gained much attention by the teaching researchers in the past.
In Nigeria as well as in other countries, education is perceived as a tool for socio-economic and political developments and as such it is accorded the necessary attention. This position is amplified in the Nigerian National Policy on Education, which stated that education is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development, (The National Policy of Education, 2004). It is added further that education shall continue to be highly rated in the national development plans because education is the most important instrument of change and that any fundamental change in the intellectual and social outlook of any society has to be preceded by educational revolution.
Recent study by Jekayinka (1998), Suleman Atiku (1997), Ajayi and Ayodele (2001), proved that adequate supply of instructional resources has significant effects on student’s performances and enhances the effectiveness of instructional delivery and supervision.
However, there seems to be in Nigerian schools an alarming shortage and even complete absence of laboratory facilities. UNESCO (1998), further stressed that monitoring of learning achievement report on the available instructional materials and facilities in the 960 sample secondary schools across the country revealed. An NUC report as cited by ESCO (1998) stated that academic and physical facilities were in the deplorable states with insufficient lectures theaters/hall, laboratories and so on.
Thus, one begins to wonder how some of these universities scale the accreditation hurdle. That is why Ijaiya (2001) opined that the quality of education being provided for the Nigerian child has become of concern and lamented on the rot in the educational system. Also, Adeyemi and Igbenewaka (2001) observed that mismatch between growing enrolment and provision of facilities especially in respect of seats for students leads to overcrowding. He added that overcrowding creates undue stress on available space and results in the creation of rowdy behaviours, hanging outside the classrooms, and absence from activities around school premises. All these have negative effects on teaching and learning process.
Literature and researches on the extent of utilization of laboratory facilities and academic performance in Computer science seem to be relatively limited and scanty.
Availability of laboratory facilities is the frequency with which the available laboratory facilities are used during laboratory experiments. Laboratory facilities can be available, adequate but not utilized during science teaching. The experiences gathered so far indicate that there is still much research to be done on the extent of utilization of laboratory facilities in secondary school science teaching and learning. This is why it becomes expedient to find out if teachers and students are actually utilizing laboratory facilities during computer science teaching.
Jatau (2008) analyzed the extent of availability of laboratory facilities and students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Pankin. The finding was that science teachers possessed adequate knowledge of the utilization of laboratory facilities for teaching science in secondary schools.
Oriade (2008) in a separate study investigated the utilization of laboratory facilities in Biology. Results revealed that most laboratory facilities were not adequately utilized during computer science teaching and learning in junior secondary schools, while some of the facilities were seldom adequate in schools.
Mathew (1998) examined the assessment of laboratory facilities and students’ academic performance, and discovered that utilization of laboratory facilities had a positive relationship with students’ academic performance towards science teaching and promotes good academic performance in the subject. An earlier work by Adeniyi (1983) drew attention to the relationship between utilization of laboratory facilities and students’ academic performance in Computer science and found that the utilization of laboratory facilities was not significantly related with students’ academic performance in the subject.
Olarewaju (1994) working on the extent of utilization of laboratory facilities and students’ academic performance, explained that utilization of laboratory facilities as a process of “doing science” through practical procedures, was a manipulative process of learning which promoted good academic performance in Computer science teaching and learning. Olarewaju, added that among other factors, when laboratory facilities were adequately utilized by students, it elicited desired behavioural change in the learners. Utilization of laboratory facilities is an activity-oriented instruction, student centred and leads to self-reliant instruction.
Edet (2008) investigated the influence of utilization of laboratory facilities and students’ academic performance in Computer science. Students taught by utilizing laboratory facilities and the control group taught without utilizing laboratory facilities during computer teaching. The results showed that students taught using laboratory facilities frequently achieved higher than those taught without utilizing laboratory facilities during Computer lessons. The recommendation made based on this finding was that utilization of laboratory facilities should be encouraged at all levels of the education sector.
Opara (2008) examined the utilization of laboratory facilities and students’ academic performance in Computer science. The findings, using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA), revealed that the 26.4% of the laboratory facilities were utilized during the teaching and learning of Computer while 74% showed that laboratory facilities were never utilized during the teaching and learning of Computer science. The finding also revealed that laboratory facilities had a significant influence on the students’ academic performance in Computer science.
The laboratory-based mode of presentation of concepts has been consistently found to be an important strategy in Computer teaching and learning in junior secondary schools. Ihuarulam (2008) investigated the perception of Computer science teachers and students based on the utilization of laboratory facilities in secondary schools for Computer teaching. The findings, using a total of one hundred and fifty (150) students, showed that 41.2% of the total respondents agreed that laboratory facilities were adequately utilized during Chemistry teaching.
The efficacy of utilization of laboratory facilities in teaching basic science in junior secondary schools and revealed that pupils who were allowed by their teachers to manipulate laboratory facilities by themselves did better academically than those who were not allowed
Maduabum (1998) investigated the utilization of laboratory facilities and academic performance in science and found that students who utilized laboratory facilities during science teaching and learning achieved higher than those who had no experience in laboratory activities in science. In a similar vein, Chukwuneka
(2010) findings based on utilization of laboratory facilities/equipment in secondary schools showed that 74% of the science teachers utilized laboratory facilities during science teaching and learning, while 26% of the teachers never utilized laboratory facilities. The findings also revealed that laboratory facilities significantly influenced students’ academic performance in science. Igboabuchi (2010) investigated the utilization of laboratory facilities in secondary schools in Nsugbe.
Findings showed that computer laboratory facilities were seldom utilized by both teachers and students during the teaching and learning of computer science. The results also revealed that the use of Biology laboratory facilities had a significant relationship with the students’ academic performance in Computer science. Etiuben (2010) investigated the effect of utilization of Computer laboratory facilities and academic performance in Chemistry. The findings revealed that utilization of Computer laboratory facilities has no significant influence on students’ academic performance in Computer. A review by Benedict
(1994) showed that utilization of laboratory facilities has a significant relationship with students’ academic performance in science.
Brewton (2000) analyzed the effect of utilization of laboratory facilities on students’ academic performance, and discovered that the teaching of science concepts is more effective and meaningful when laboratory facilities are well utilized during science teaching. Brewton concluded that effective utilization of
Statement of the Problem
The role of Computer science in the development of science and technology in modern economy cannot be over emphasized.
This role is multifaceted and multifarious that no area of science and technology escapes its application (Okereke, 2006)
Ukaeje (1989) described Computer science and the basic sciences as the mirrow or civilization and the most basic discipline for any person who would be truly educated an any science.
Despite the importance place on these basic sciences, researchers (Odili, 1886) Salan, 1985; Amazigo 2000; Agwagah, 2001, had observed that students lack interest in the subjects and perform poorly in them. For instance, (Ukeje 1986) observed that mathematics is one of the most poorly taught widely hated and abysmally, understood subject in secondary schools.
Although (Okigbo and Oguafor 2008) have carried out research on the effect of computer laboratory on the achievement of computer science students, it is not certain how many of these schools have these computer laboratory or laboratories for the science subjects. We therefore need to adapt to the fast changing computer age.
Consequently evidence of poor performance in computer by junior secondary school students point to the fact that the most desired technological, scientific and business applications cannot be sustained.
The study is therefore designed to find out the assessment on the availability of laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of Computer Science in Junior secondary school
It is also designed to find out the extent for which these Laboratories are equipped where they exist.