- Background of the study
Marriage according to Oxford Learner’s Dictionary is a legal relationship between a man and a woman. A successful marriage that bring about children is what many people are praying to have in society today.
However, the issue of divorce is now a worldwide phenomenon and it always have adverse effects on general well being of any child that falls victim under this situation. Marriage is supposed to bring harmony between husband, wife and children. According to Holy Bible in Genesis chapter 2 vs 24 says, “a man shall leave his fathers house and leave to a woman and they shall no longer be two but one”. When there is separation between the man and the woman it is called divorce. Children who find themselves in such situation often lack parental love, care and attention which are very important factors needed for the children up bringing. In Nigeria, as in most of other countries, of the world a good number of children are brought up by a single parent. Divorce occurs when one of the couples found the other incompatible to live with, that is become bored of managing or persevere under hardship and decides to leave home for other either on mutual agreement or through fighting, or runs away from home without the partner knowing his where about.
Therefore, this constitutes long time deprivation to the child whose total personality development should be supported by both parents. The effects of these separation has a socio –economic implications on the child and society at large. Whatever may be the cause of the divorce it is the child who often pay the price. Many times the child in this problem will feel lonely and loss of self confidence when faced with the slightest difficult in life. Also children living with a single parent household have to content with negative stereotype incessant hatful remarks made by insensitive adults. Also divorce brings about misname in children, juvenile deliguency, bullying, cheating, alcoholism, sex abuse, child abuse, smoking and many other deviant behaviour become the other of the day.
Accordingly, family has effects and influences on the social placement of the offspring in the society since there is usually a tendency for most societies to link people with the affinity ties to their nuclear family. The implication of this is that whatever one becomes in life has a positive correction with one’s family socio – economic status in society.
According to Robert Blested (1964) of all groups that affect the lives of individual in society, none touches the individual so intimately as dies the family from the moment of birth to the moment of death.
Therefore, the type of child rearing practice employed by parents will have an impact on the entire life of the child in general and particular on his or her academic performances. In homes where parents live together the kind of relationship between the mother and the father also affect the academic performances of the child which could be positive or negative. Wiseman (1973), argues that it is the parents attitudes that rather affects the level of the children’s cognitive achievement.