Background to Study
From the beginning parents are the primary persons involved in raising children in every society that is why the family is recognised as an important agent of socialization. Therefore, the importance of parent/family cannot be overemphasized. Adekey, A. (2002) stated that it was mainly through their efforts and abilities that children are socialized to become a productive citizen. Whenever parents possess the resources and skills apply them efficiently and joyfully for upbringing of their children. The entire society would benefit, and this brings joy and benefit to the nation and encourages development and peaceful co-existence. The children themselves feel good and bring happiness to their parents and the whole community. Vellymalay, (2012) stated that a child’s capability to succeed in school depends on how successfully the child is managed by his/her parent in the environment. It is an environment where the child learns skills, attitude and behaviour that could mould them into productive and successful students. It is important to note that not every child comes from a home that could provide them with the requisite educational resource necessary for their academic success. In agreement with that, apparent socioeconomic status plays a significant role in providing these educational resources and appears to impose the greater impact on the child’s educational outcomes.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a grouping of people with similar occupational, educational and economic characteristics. The socio-economic status implies certain inequalities. Members of society have an occupation that varies in prestige. And some individual have more access than others to higher-status-occupation, different level of educational attainment. And some individual have more access than others to better education, various economic recourses and different level of power to influence a communities` institutions. Therefore, differences in the ability to control recourses and participate in society’s` rewards produce equal opportunities, (Robert, 1986). One significant student difference is a social class. Even in small rural towns, where almost all peoples are the same in ethnicity and religion. The children of the town bankers, doctors, and teachers probably may have a different upbringing from those children of most farmland or domestic workers. However, social class indicates more than the level of income and education. The social class goes a pervasive set of behaviours, expectations and attitudes that intersect with and affected by other cultural factors. Students’ social class origins are likely to have a profound effect on attitudes and behaviours in school. Students from working class or lower class backgrounds are less advantage than middle-class students whose enter school with the knowledge of how to count, to name letters, to cut with scissors, or to name colours. They are less to perform well in school than other children from middle-class home (Byrnes & Miller, 2007; Natriello, 2003; Sackelt, Kuncel, Arneson, Cooper & Water, 2007; Sirin, 2005).
However, Ajila (2000) pointed out that the home has a significant influence on the psychological, emotional, social and economic state of the students. The state of the home affects the individual since the parents are the first socialization agent in a person’s life. It is because the family background and context of a child’s family do the effect in his reaction to life situation and his level of performance. Although, the school is responsible for the knowledge that make up the individual during the school period, yet Parents and the person experiences at home play a tremendous role in building the personality and making him what he is. One significant student difference is a social class. Even in small rural towns, where almost all peoples are the same in ethnicity and religion. The children of the town bankers, doctors, and teachers probably may have a different upbringing from those children of most farmland or domestic workers.