Background of the Study
Teaching and learning in the 21st Century is becoming increasingly reliant on new technologies. Information and communication technologies (ICT) provide an excellent vehicle for engaging students in learning, it have become key tool and had a revolutionary impact on how we see the world and how we live. ICT’s impacts on education (e-learning) in general have been established.
Information and communication technology means different things to different educators and researchers hence there are various views and definitions of ICT.
According to Obanya (2002) information and communication technology is a broad concept that has to do with the harnessing of the process, the methods and the product of electronic and communication related technologies (and other related resources in today’s knowledge – driven society), for enhancing the availability, the spread and efficiency of a set of programmed activities geared towards the achievement of clearly defined goals. Nwakundo et al.,(2006) views ICT as a tool that comprises electronic devices which are utilized for the information and communication needs of institutions, organizations, students and individuals. Such electronic devices include computers (software and hardware), networking, telephone, video, multimedia and internet. Yusuf (2007) described ICT as an electronic technology used for accessing, processing, gathering, manipulating, presenting and communicating information. He emphasized that when ICTs are employed in education, they can accelerate, enrich and deepen basic skills in reading, writing, arithmetic and the sciences beside motivating and encouraging students to learn as they become more independent and responsible for their learning.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are often associated with the most sophisticated and expensive computer-based technologies. But ICTs also encompass the more conventional technologies such as radio, television and telephone technology. While definitions of ICTs are varied, it might be useful to accept the definition provided by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): ‘ICTs are basically information-handling tools a varied set of goods, applications and services that are used to produce, store, process, distribute and exchange information. They include the ‘old’ ICTs of radio, television and telephone, and the ‘new’ ICTs of computers, satellite and wireless technology and the Internet. These different tools are now able to work together, and combine to form our ‘networked world’ – a massive infrastructure of interconnected telephone services, standardized computing hardware, the internet, radio and television, which reaches into every corner of the globe’. When we talk of ICTs, we refer not only to the latest computer and Internet based technologies, but also to simple audio visual aids such as the transparency and slides, tape and cassette recorders and radio; video cassettes and television; and film. These older and more familiar technologies are referred to under the collective heading of “analogue media” while the newer computer and Internet based technologies are called the “digital media” (Usha, 2001).
However, in today’s world, with the increased convergence or blending of the engineering designs and with the coming together of the satellite and the computer, the dividing lines between these different media are becoming blurred and consequently, the way people define and refer to ICTs is also getting blurred. Often, the definition of ICTs is also done in terms of “old” and “new” as if to distinguish between the analogue and digital (Livingstone 1999).
The application and utilization of the afore mentioned devices convert data, text messages, sounds and motion to common digital forms. Therefore, information and communication technology is the use of the computer as well as other electronic telecommunication appliances to input, store, and retrieve information from different sources, create and transfer messages in form of ideas and also input knowledge to recipients. In line with the above definition of ICT, it is obvious to conclude that to prepare Physical and Health Education teachers and their students in Nigerian secondary schools to meet the demands of a global world, complete internet and intranet services should be put in place in secondary schools. To achieve the above stated objective, ICT is important as it is a teaching tool that improves the quality of secondary school student’s education and support teachers’ work inside and beyond the classroom. There is no gainsaying the fact that the application of ICT in the teaching and learning of Physical and Health Education in secondary schools will effective the acquisition of the necessary skills that will enable the students themselves contribute to the growth, improvement and development of the nation socially and economically (Donatus, et al. 2012). It is in the light of the foregoing that this research study deems it fit to examine the roles of ICT in the teaching and learning of physical and health education in secondary schools in Nigeria in this dispensation of globalization.
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