Background of the Study
Indiscipline means the absence of discipline. Thus where indiscipline reigns instead of discipline, life and property become insecure, and the continued existence of the society becomes precarious. The Nigerian schools are prone to many constraints and lack adequate facilities in majority, at that time it is the school principal who has to function effectively especially in the absence of facilities along with a number of other constrains. The efficiency of a school principal in managing schools in such situation effectively exposes the capacity of a skilled school manager. In addition to the duties of a head, she has also to deal with pupil, parents and staff on one hand and on the other hand has to work for the school supervision, inspection and fulfill the responsibilities assigned from time to time. Talking about Nigeria, a lot of head teachers still retain some teaching responsibility besides their managerial and pastoral duties.
A school principal is expected to be visible all the time, meeting students, parents and teachers, solving and dealing with various situations personally and representing the school. A principal is not only responsible for facilitating the interaction with parents but is also responsible for issues such as discipline among the students, academic performance and so on. A principal is held accountable not only for achievement of student but also for staff achievement. Principal influences achievement by creating situations which help in improving the process of teaching and learning. So the challenges a principal faces while managing a school is multifold and often remains unnoticed, though the ability of an effective leader in a school setting lies in how a principal goes about meeting those challenges. State and local school accountability systems have become widespread, in part due to requirements of the federal “No Child Left Behind Legislation”. The focus on schools, as opposed to school districts or teachers, presupposes that school-level policy decisions matter. These decisions are, in large part, determined by school principals, who have an important influence on the composition of the school workforce and course content, and who are responsible for monitoring the quality of instruction delivered by teachers. However, in contrast to the large literature on teacher quality (Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain 2005; Rockoff 2004; Harris and Sass 2006; Kane, Rockoff, and Staiger 2008; Buddin and Zamarro 2009), few studies have addressed whether principals impact school performance and, if they do, which principal characteristics determine principal effectiveness.
Discipline is one of the basic requirements for successful teaching-learning process in schools and it is one of the subjects of concern for teachers. It is a means of molding the behavior of a person and a process of making a child to show acceptable behavior as a member of the community (Elias et al., 2004). Predominantly, discipline problems occur when a student refuses to obey rules of the classroom or school. Lack of discipline in school makes it difficult to teach effectively. One of the effects of student indiscipline on teaching learning process is poor performance. Since much time is spent on discipline cases, less time on teaching, and this means that the contents are not completed hence students’ inadequate preparation for the examinations and learning (Nakpodia, 2010; Alemayehu, 2012 and Oluremi, 2013).
Disciplinary problem in the school is common problem. The school management suspended two male students due to the severe disciplinary problem in the first term. Based on the information gathered through in-depth key informant interview and document analysis, being late, cheating during exam time, unable to accomplish assignments and home works given, smoking cigarette, stealing of students property (mainly mobile and text books), being restless in class rooms (mainly in the afternoon classes), quarrelling with teachers and among themselves, absenteeism, missing classes, playing with matches in classrooms, making impolite remarks towards teachers, throwing chalk and small stones across the classroom, purposively disturbing the class with cell phone sounds while the teacher is giving lecture, disobedience of school authority, dress code violations, leaving school without permission, as well as talking or/and inattentiveness when the educators are talking are the major disciplinary problems committed in the school.
Factors outside the school also play a role. Antisocial and aggressive learners generally come from home environments where their daily needs are not met. This includes not being served meals, not having an indicated time for going to bed, and a lack of parental control. Serious breaches of school discipline policy include assault by students on teachers and other students, verbal abuse, offensive language against teachers and other students, sexual and other forms of harassment, threat and intimidation of teachers and other students, possessing offensive weapons, supplying or using illegal drugs, intrusions into the school or classrooms by adults with the intention of confronting teachers have become a case of study that needed immediate attention (Azizi et al. 2009).
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