Background of the Study
Motivation comes from the Latin root “movers” which means to move. So motivation can mean the process of arousing the interest of an individual to take a move towards a certain goal. Harzberg (2008), defines motivation as all those phenomena which are involved in the stimulation of actions toward particular objectives where previously, there was little or no movement towards these goals. Waitley (1996), defines motivation as the inner derive which prompts people actin a certain way. Motivation involved a number of psychological factors that start and maintained activities towards the achievement of personal goals. Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and their behaviour towards subjects matter Ormord (2003).
Motivation of teachers and students in teaching and learning process can direct behaviour towards particular goals, leads to increase effort and energy enhance cognitive processing, increase initiation of and persistence in activities, determine what consequences are reinforcing and it can also lead to improved performance.
Orphlims (2002) is of the view that motivated teachers always look for better ways to do their teaching job, they are more quality oriented and are more productive. Therefore, it means that motivated teachers are determine, to give their, best to achieve the maximum output (qualitative education). Motivation can be in the form of regular payment of salary, fringe benefit, such as allowance, bonus on the job training, promotion of the teachers, provision of good working environment, maintaining high degree of relationship and improving the teachers general well being. Hence, any teacher that enjoys the above named items is band to give all his best in discharging of his duty because, he would derive satisfaction of being a teacher.
Societies all over the world have used education as an instrument for the achievement of their national interests and objectives. Education is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. It fosters the worth and development of the individual, for the individual sake and for the general development of the society (National Policy on Education, 2004). All these call for functional education for the promotion of a progressive and united country. Therefore, school programs need to be relevant, practical and comprehensive, while interest and ability should determine the individuals direction in education. It is only when these 2 factors come together that we can achieve the national objectives.
In Nigeria, for example, in order to achieve the goals and objectives of education, the government set up 3 levels of education: primary education, secondary education and tertiary education (National Policy on Education, 2004). For the purpose of this research, the discussion is limited to secondary education.
On one hand, looking at the number of students that graduate from secondary schools every year, one may say that secondary education is trying to fulfill these obligations. But on the other hand, considering the quality of those students that graduate every year, it looks like secondary education is not realizing the goals and objectives for which it is set up.
Uwadiae (2006), as long as there are still examination malpractices in secondary schools, the goals and objectives of secondary education are not being realized. Elaborating on this he says that, the percentage of reported cases of examination malpractice has been on the increase. The state was 18th in 2001, 17th in 2002, 9th in 2003, 7th in 2004 and has increased to be the 4th ranked state with cases of examination malpractice in 2005. This has cast some level of doubt on whether secondary education fulfills its objectives and on the veracity of any good academic performance. If the number of reported cases of examination malpractice could be as high, how are we sure that the number of unreported cases, some of which formed part of the good performance, are not as high or even higher? If examination malpractice is increasing every year in secondary education in Edo State of Nigeria, it implies that students are not being prepared well for higher institution.
Uwadiae (2006) said, the issue of examination malpractice in the secondary education should be a food for thought for all of us because it betrays the aim and goal of secondary education and reveals a lacuna in our secondary education. In the opinion of Awanbor (2005), this lacuna in our secondary education among other things is lack of students motivation. It is the opinion of Rusillo and Arias (2004), that there is significant influence of academic motivation on learning at school.
Awanbor (2005) holds that students, who lack sufficient level of academic motivation exhibit a weak drive towards the pursuit of academic goals. Such students manifest signs and symptoms of indifference and apathy towards school. Majority of such students, if not all, are those who are involved in examination malpractices.
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