BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training or research.
We have two types of education in the world which is formal and informal education, formal education includes Curriculum, Preschools, Primary schools, Secondary schools, Alternative education also known as Non-traditional education, special education and vocational education and informal education includes Auto didacticism, Indigenous and Education through recreation. In this study our attention will be focused on Secondary school in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
In Nigeria, Nigerian children begin their education at the age of two or three years starting from nursery school to kindergarten, then elementary school (Primary school), high school (Junior High School and Senior High School) and finally university. The average age at which a Nigerian child enters primary school is 5 years. Ghana has a 6-year primary school education system beginning at age five, and they pass on to a 3-year Junior High School system. At the end of the third year of Junior High, there is a mandatory “Basic Education Certificate Examination”. Those continuing must complete the 3 -year Senior High school program and take an admission exam to enter anyuniversity or tertiary programme. The Nigerian education system from nursery school up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years.
In Nigeria, we have a total of 5955 Junior Secondary Schools (JSS) comprising of 1589 private and 4366 public schools. Junior Secondary School starts right after Primary 6, it has a different name as compared to other countries, and some countries call this stage either Junior High School or middle school. In America this stage starts in Grade 6 but in Nigeria it starts when you are in Grade 7.
Academic performance has been described as the scholastic standing of a student at a given moment. This scholastic standing could be explained in terms of the grades obtained in a course or groups of courses (Daniels and Schoulen, 1970). Simkins (1981) commented on this scholastic standing and argued that performance is a measure of output and that the main outputs in education are expressed in terms of learning, that is, changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals as a result of their experiences within the school’s system. STAN, (1992) supported this argument and reported that performance is the level of attainment of a person in an examination, that is, how an individual is able to demonstrate his or her abilities in an examination.
Noting this point, Al-Shorayye (1995) regarded a student’s performance in an examination as being depended on his cumulative grade point average. His argument supported Entwistle and’ Wilson’s (1977) assertion that a student’s success is generally judged by examination performance while the best criterion of performance is the sum of the student’s academic performance in all the subjects taken. Researchers had deliberated much on performance as a measure of school output (Blaug and Woodhall, 1968; Adeyemi, 1998; Bandele, 2001). Blaug and Woodhall (1968), for instance, argued that the only measure of performance of school leavers is the attainment in GCE examinations. Consequently, they measured output in terms of the number of school leavers weighted by different indices of quality or number of passes and reported that performance in GCE is one relevant criterion of educational quality and that ‘academic index’ measures output in terms of GCE results.
Awan (2014) says that education plays a pivotal role in the rise and fall of nations especially in 21st century. It is mainly due to the emergence of global competition in education and technology. This competitive environment is the core need for progress of any country. Awan (2011) argues that all countries including Pakistan have different school systems but when we divide them wefind two major categories of school systems: private and public schools. In Pakistan private schools are getting mass acceptance today to ensure sustained progress of the country. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze the quality of education introduced in private schools. The quality of education is assessed by education levels of teachers, method of teaching, curriculum, and study environment.
During 1990s and 2000s private sector was emerged as a key provider of education services in Pakistan both in absolute terms and relative to the public sector. One piece of evidence relates to the number of private schools, which increased by 69%, as compared to mere 8% increase in number of schools. In 2000 private sector was catering the educational needs of about 6 million children. This number increased to 12 million in 2007-08 – equivalent to 34 percent of total enrolment. The number of teachers also doubled in private1 educational institutions during this period. Awan and Saeed (2014) plead that private educational institutions are playing key role not only in eradicating illiteracy but also enhancing the level of students as well as teachers by providing better academic environment. Awan (2012) disclosed that private sector contributed significantly in eradicating illiteracy in the emerging economies. If private school properly managed they can uplift educational standard in Pakistan as well. Awan (2012) revealed that educational system was completely shattered in the Soviet Union after its disintegration in the late 1990s due to non-existence of private educational institutions. When the Soviet Union was collapsed its public school system was also collapsed.